1. Sources:

Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments. Literary Sources: Indigenous: Primary and Secondary; Poetry, scientific literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

  1. Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (Paleolithic and Mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture(Neolithic and chalcolithic).

  1. Indus valley civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

  1. Megalithic cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

  1. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India.

Vedic Period: Religious and Philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic Period to the later Vedic period; Political, Social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

  1. Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of  Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

  1. Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts, Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

  1. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas)

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

  1. Early State and Society in eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satvahanas, Tamil states of the Sangam Age, Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and Architecture.


  1. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land Grants, Decline of the urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of Women, Education and Educational Institutions, Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, Scientific Literature, art and architecture.

  1. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas; Senas; Rashtrakutas; Paramaras; Polity and Administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni; The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local government; growth of Art and architecture; religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, Education and literature, economy and society.

  1. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Language and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

  1. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
  • Polity: Major political developments in northern India and the Peninsula, Origin and the Rise of Rajputs- The Cholas: administration, village economy and society.
  • “Indian Feudalism”
  • Agrarian economy and urban settlements
  • Trade and Commerce
  • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
  • Condition of women
  • Indian Science and Technology
  1. Cultural tradition in India, 750-1200:
  • Philosophy: Sankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Bahma-Mimansa
  • Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil development cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
  • Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
  • Art and Architecture: Temple Architecture, Sculpture, Painting
  1. The Thirteenth Century:
  • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions- factors behind Ghurian success
  • Economic, social and cultural consequences
  • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
  • Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
  1. The Fourteenth Century:
  • ”The Khalji Revolution”
  • Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
  • Muhammad Tughluq: Major Projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
  • Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.
  1. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
  • Social: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
  • Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture- Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
  1. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:
  • Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
  • The Vijayanagra Empire
  • Lodis-Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
  • The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
  • Portuguese colonial enterprise
  • Bhakti and Sufi movements
  1. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century- Society and Culture:
  • Regional cultural specificities
  • Literary traditions
  • Provincial architecture
  • Society, culture, literature and the Vijayanagara Empire
  1. Akbar:
  • Conquests and consolidation of the empire
  • Establishment of Jagir and Mansab Systems
  • Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sul-hi-kul and religious policy
  • Courts Patronage of art and technology
  1. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
  • Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • The Empire and the Zamindars
  • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • Nature of the Mughal State
  • Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
  • The Ahom Kingdom
  • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
  1. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
  • Population, agricultural production, craft production
  • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies, a trade revolution
  • Indian mercantile classes, banking, Insurance and credit systems
  • Condition of Peasants, condition of women
  • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
  1. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
  • Persian histories and other literature
  • Hindi and other religious literature
  • Mughal architecture
  • Mughal painting
  • Provincial architecture and painting-classical music
  • Science and Technology
  1. The Eighteenth Century:
  • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
  • The regional Principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
  • Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
  • The Maratha fiscal and financial system
  • Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
  • State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.


  1. European Penetration into India:

The early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their Struggle for Supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal- The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

  1. British Expansion in India:

Bengal- Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

  1. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

  1. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a)    Land revenue settlements in British India; The permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercia-lization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialization; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

  1. Social and Cultural Developments:

The State of Indigenous Education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of Press, literature and  public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

  1. Social and religious reform movements in Bengal and other areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo movement; Devendranath Tagore; Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar; The young Bengal movement; Dayananda Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism- the Feraizi and Wahabi movements.

  1. Indian response to British rule:

Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th nad 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopia Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857- Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period, the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

  1. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The foundation of the Indian National Congress; The safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; The social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
  2. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian Nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat movement; the Non-cooperation movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of Civil Disobedience movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian Politics (1855-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India movement; the Wavell plan; The cabinet Mission.
  3. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
  4. Other strands in the National Movement.

The Revolutionaries: Begal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. and the Madras Presidency, Outside India.

The left: The Left within the Congress; Jawaharlal Nehru; Subhash Chandra Bose; the Congress Socialist Party; The Communist Party of India, other left parties.

  1. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the Politics of partition; transfer of power; Independence.
  2. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; The question of National language.
  3. Caste and ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
  4. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of Science.
  5. Enlightenment and Modern Ideas:

(i)    Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau

(ii)   Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

(iii)  Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism

  1. Origins of Modern Politics:

(i)    European States system.

(ii)   American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii)  French Revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv)  American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery

(v)   British Democratic Politics; 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

  1. Industrialization:

(i)    English Industrial Revolution; Causes and Impact on Society

(ii)   Industrialization in other countries; USA, Germany, Russia, Japan

(iii)  Industrialization and  Globalization.

  1. National-State System:

(i)    Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

(ii)   Nationalism: state-building in Italy and Germany

(iii)  Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

  1. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i)    South and South-East Asia

(ii)   Latin America and South Africa

(iii)  Australia

(iv)  Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism

  1. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

(i)    19th century European revolutions

(ii)   The Russian revolution of 1917-1921

(iii)  Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany

(iv)  The Chinese revolution of 1949

  1. World Wars:

(i)    1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications

(ii)   World War I: Causes and Consequences

(iii)  World War II: Causes and Consequences

  1. The World after World War II:

(i)    Emergence of two power blocs

(ii)   Emergence of Third World and non-alignment

(iii)  UNO and the global disputes

  1. Liberation from Colonial rule:

(i)    Latin America-Bolivar

(ii)   Arab World-Egypt

(iii)  Africa-Apartheid to Democracy

(iv)  South-East Asia-Vietnam

  1. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i)    Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

  1. Unification of Europe:

(i)    Post war Foundations: NATO and European Community

(ii)   Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii)  European Union

  1. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i)    Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991

(ii)   Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.

(iii)  End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the world as lone superpower.


 Section ‘A’

  1. Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you (on page 4) and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim:

2 ½ x 20 =50

Topic:   Demonstration Archaeological places through map

(i)         A Neolithic site

(ii)        A Neolithic site

(iii)       A Harappan site

(iv)       A Megalithic site

(v)        A Harappan site

(vi)       A Painted-Grey-ware site

(vii)      An inscriptional site

(viii)     An important ancient city

(ix)       An ancient port

(x)        A site of ancient cave-paintings

(xi)       A Buddhist site

(xii)      An educational centre

(xiii)     Brahmadeya village

(xiv)     An ancient capital

(xv)      An ancient capital

(xvi)     A temple site

(xvii)    An ancient capital

(xviii)   An ancient sea-port

(xix)     An archaeological temple site

(xx)      A harappan site

  1. (a) How far can the ancient Indian Sruti Literature be used as historical sources?


Topic:   Literary Sources – Vedic Period

(b)  The decline of Harappan Civilization was caused by ecological degradation rather than external invasion. Discuss.


Topic:   Decline of Indus Valley Civilization

(c)   “Archaeology knows of no Aryans; only literature knows of Aryans.” Examine critically


Topic:   Aryans and Vedic Period– Expansions of Aryans

  1. (a) How far is it correct to say that changes in the post-Vedic economy gave birth to new religious movements in India?


Topic:   Vedic Period – Religious Movements

(b) Delineate the nature and impact of India’s contact with Western Asia and the Mediterranean world during the Mauryan period.


Topic:   Mauryan Empire – External Contacts

(c) “Not only does ancient Tamil literature furnish an accurate picture of widely disparate classes; it also describes the social condition of Tamil country as it was.” Discuss.


Topic:   South India – Tamil Literature

  1. (a) Trace the role of guilds and trade organisations in the development of early Indian economy


Topic:   Gupta Era – Early State and Society

(b) Kailasa temple built at Ellora marks the culmination of rock-cut architecture in India. Elucidate.


Topic:   Gupta Era / Rashtrakutas

Period-Art and Architecture

(c)   How could the local self-government under the Cholas adjust with their centralised administrative structure?


Topic:   Gupta Era – Chola Dynasty


Section ‘B’

  1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10 x 5 = 50

(a)   Give a brief account of the early medieval temple architecture of Kashmir.

Topic:   Early Medieval India – Temple Architecture

(b)  Why is Mamallapuram famous?

Topic:   Early Medieval India – Temple Architecture

(c)   Mention the salient features of the polity of Vijayanagara Empire under Krishnadevaraya.

Topic:   Vijay Nagar Empire

(d)  What measures did Balban adopt to combat the Mongol menace?

Topic:   Delhi Sultanate

(e)   How odes Tuzuk-I Babri testify that Barbur had been a cultured man?

Topic:   Mughal Empire

  1. (a) Do the evidences of land ownership at our disposal support the theory of the prevalence of feudalism in early medieval India?


Topic:   Early Medieval India

(b) Discuss in brief the land-revenue system and judicial administration of the Delhi Sultanate.


Topic:   Delhi Sultanata

(c)   “Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Islamic/Hindu societies to any aprreciable extent.” Comment for/against.


Topic:   Cultural Traditions in India

– Sufi, Bhakti Movement

  1. (a) Make an estimate of Rana Kumbha as a patron of literature and art.


Topic:   15 Centuary – Literature & Arts

(b) Why should the sixteenth century be regarded as the period of Indian Renaissance?


Topic:   16 Centuary – Indian Renalissance

(c)   “Tantrism, if not in practice, at least on conceptual level challenged patriarchy.” Examine Tantrism specially keeping in mind the above context.


Topic:   Tantrism, its role

  1. (a) “In medieval Indian history Akbar was unique for his religio-political ideas and policies.” Analyse this statement.


Topic:   Mughal Empire – Akbar Era

(b) Will it not be correct to say that the rural economy in Mughal India was relatively self-sufficient?


Topic:   Mughal Empire – Rural Economy

(c)   Compare the Peshwas’ bureaucratic management with that of the Imperial Mughal administration.


Topic:   18th Centuary – Mughal & Peshwas Administration


Section ‘A’

  1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each:

10 x 5 = 50

(a)   “Annexation of Punjab was part of a broad north-west frontier policy set in motion after the exit of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.”

       Topic:       British Expansion in

                        India-Annexation of Punjab

(b)  “The Regulating Act (1773), the Pitt’s India Act (1784) and eventually the Charter Act of 1833 left the East India Company as a mere shadow of its earlier political and economic power in India.”

Topic: Early Structure of the BritishRaj-Changing Character of British rule

(c)   “The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60 holds a very significant place in our history of national liberation movement. For the first time in the history of our anti-colonial struggle, its two independent currents- spontaneous peasant resistance and constitutional agitation in defence of the peasantry- came into mutual contact.”

Topic: Indian Response to British Rule – Indigo Revolt

(d)  “The very idea of the bomb and the secret society, and the propaganda through action and sacrifice were imports from the West.”

Topic: Indian Response to British Rule – Role of west

(e)   “This retention of Rowlatt legislation in the teeth of universal opposition is an affront to the nation. Its repeal is necessary to appease national honour.”

Topic: Response to Rowaltt Act – M.K. Gandhi Statements

  1. (a) “Swami Dayananda’s philosophy represents both elements of extremism and social radicalism.” Substantiate.


Topic: Philosophy of Swami Dayanand

(b) “To characterize the Quit Indi Movement as ‘Spontaneous Revolution’ would be partial interpretation, so also would be to look up at it as the culmination of Gandhian Satyagraha movements.” Elucidate.


Topic: Indian Response to British Rule – Quit Indian Movement

(c) “A powerful left-wing group developed in India in the late 1920s and 1930s, contributing to the radicalization of national movement.” Critically examine.


Topic: Indian Response to British rule – Left wing

  1. (a) “Under the forceful thrust of British colonialism, Indian economy was transformed into a colonial one, the structure of which was determined by the requirements of Britain’s fast developing industrial economy.” Examine.


Topic: Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule

(b) “James Mill, the apostle of utilitarian philosophy, proposed a revolution of Indian Society through ‘the weapon of law’ solely. But in actual policy farming, other influences and considerations weighed much more than the colonial State.” Elucidate.


Topic: Enlightenment and Modern Ideas

(c) “The royal Indian Navy revolt was seen as an event which marked the end of the British rule almost as finally as Independence Day.” Explain.


Topic:  End of British Era – RIN Revolt

  1. (a) Analyze the nature of peasant movements during the nationalist phase and bring out their shortcomings.


Topic: Indian Response to British Rule- Peasant Movement

(b) “Jawaharlal Nehru, though a declared Socialist, was pragmatist enough to focus on providing building blocks to the making of a new India.” Examine.


Topic: Economic & Political Development in India – Nehru Era

(c) “Although the government of India Act of 1935 replaced diarchy with Provincial Autonomy, the overriding powers of the Governor diluted the spirit of autonomy.” Elucidate.


Topic: Act of 1935



  1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each:

(a)   “France was even more fertile than Britain in producing new Socialist theories and movements, through bore less concrete results in France than Britain.”

Topic: Enlightenment and Modern ideas – France

(b)  “The multiple contradictions that quickly undermined the new edifice, had been expressed even before the meeting of the Estates General in France. The internal conflict among Estates had manifested itself.”

Topic: Origin of Modern Politics

(c)   “The whole episode that is known as the July Revolution (1830) was fought and won not for the establishment of an extreme democracy but to get rid of the aristocratic and clericalist attitude of the restored Bourbons.”

Topic: Origin of Modern Politics – France

(d)  “Mazzini’s conception of Italian nationality was not exclusive and his dominant ideals was the recreation of moral unity of mankind.”

Topic: Revolution and Counter – Revolution

(e)   “The Continental Blockade was a misconceived idea of economically defeating Great Britain.”

Topic: Continental System

  1. (a) “The Berlin Congress (1878) failed to unlock to Eastern Question. Though there was no major war in Europe for nearly three decades after the Treaty of Berlin, it contained the seeds of many future wars.” Critically evaluate.


Topic: Nation – State System – Berlin Congress

(b) “History of Africa appears to be simply an extension or mere sub-theme under the broad headings of European and American history. According to this historiography, Africa seems to be without any history before the European scramble.” Elucidate.


Topic: Imperialism and Colonialism – Africa

(c) “The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were considered by the Russian Bloc as a weapon against Russia in order to restrict her influence.” Critically examine.


Topic: Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan its impact on Russia

  1. (a) How far is it correct to say that the First World War was fought essentially for the preservation of the balance of power?


Topic: World Wars – World War-I Impact


(b) “The failure of Kuomintang against the communist onslaught was unimaginable and it was Mao Tsetung whose tenacity and innovative approach had accomplished the unthinkable.” Discuss.


Topic: Revolution and Counter – Revolution – The Chinese Revolution of 1949

(c) “The oppressive exploitation of the working class in the wake of Industrial Revolution had jolted the social conscience of England.” Elucidate.


Topic: Industrialization – Impact on Working Class

  1. (a) “The UNO was created in the light of experience of the ‘League of Nations’, but in spite of the mandate contained in the UNO constitution, its effective role in maintaining world peace has lacked cohesiveness and collective approach.” Examine.


Topic: World After World War-II – UNO

(b) “The European Union, a diplomatic marvel, continues to grapple with intermittent fissures arising out of economic contentiousissues that pose a challenge to an effective integration of the Union.” Critically examine.


Topic: Unification of Europe – EU

(c) “The role of the Non-Alignment movement in world affairs suffered greatly due to the theatre of internecine conflicts among the Third World countries who spread headed it.” Elucidate.


Topic: Non-Alignment Movement – Third World Countries

Paper-I :   2014

 Section ‘A’

  1. Identify the following places marked on the map supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in your Question-cum-Answer Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim:

2 ½ x 20 = 50

Topic: Demonstration of Archaeological Places through map

(i)   An ancient capital

(ii)  A Palaeolithic site

(iii) A cultural centre

(iv) An ancient capital

(v)  A Palaeolithic site

(vi) A historical site

(vii) A Harappan site

(viii) An ancient capital

(ix) A political and cultural centre

(x)  A megalithic site

(xi) A Mesolithic site

(xii) A Chalcolithic site

(xiii) A prehistoric site

(xiv) A political and cultural centre

(xv) An ancient capital

(xvi) A lost port

(xvii) Rock-cave art centre

(xviii) An ancient capital

(xix) A political and cultural centre

(xx) An ancient town

  1. (a) “Write using the accounts of foreign writers, historians must distinguish between statements based on hearsay and those grounded in perceptive observations.” Elaborate with examples.


Topic: Literacy sources – foreign writers

(b) “The Upanishadic principles embody the epitome of the Vedic thought.” Discuss.


Topic: Vedic period – Religious and philosophic literature

(c) Review critically the evolution of different schools of art in the Indian subcontinent between the second century BCE and the third century CE, and evaluate the socio-religious factors responsible for it.


Topic: Indian Art & Culture

  1. (a) In what ways can the Megalithic culture be considered a foundational phase of the history of peninsular India?


Topic: Megalithic Culture

(b) Do you think the Harappan civilization had a delivery of subsistence base? 15

Topic: Indus valley civilization

(c) Discuss different interpretations of historians about the nature of Asoka’s ‘Dhamma’. Did his principle of ‘Dhamma-vijaya’ render the Mauryan Empire militaristically weak?


Topic: Mauryan Empire – Ashoka the great

  1. (a) Buddha’s teachings to a large extent could be helpful in understanding and resolving the problems of today’s society. Analyse critically


Topic: Philosophy of Buddhism

(b) Discuss the provincial and district administrative units of the Gupta Empire with the designations and functions of the officers.


Topic: Gupta’s Empire – Polity and Administration

(c) When were the privileges granted to the donees in land-grant charters of early India? How far were these charters responsible for integration or disintegration of socio-political milieu?


Topic: Period of Mahajanapadas – Republics and monarchies



  1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10 x 5 = 50

(a)   Critically analyse the agricultural economy from 750 to 1200 CE

Topic: Early Medieval India

(b)  Evaluate the contribution of Vaishnava saints to the growth of medieval Bhakti literature.

Topic: Culture Tradition in India,

750-1200 A.D.

(c)   Analyse the ordinances mentioned by Barani which Alauddin Khalji promulgated for market control.

Topic: The Fourteenth Century – Aluddin Khalji

(d)  Give a brief account of resistance offered by Ahom State against the Mughal rule.

Topic: Mughal empire in the seventeenth century

(e)   How was Cartaz system used by the Portuguese to maintain their control over the oceanic trade?

Topic: Economy and society in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

  1. (a) Evaluating various theories regarding the Chola state, throw light on its village assemblies.


Topic: Early Medieval India – The Chola’s Dynasty

(b) Trace the technological and stylistic development in the architecture of the Sultanate period.


Topic: The thirteenth century – Architecture and structural forms

(c) Analyse the Mughal monetary system and examine their policy of minting coins.


Topic: Economic of mughal Empire

  1. (a) Evaluate the ‘Kitab-al-Hind’ of Alberuni as a source of history of India.


Topic: Culture in the Mughal empire – Persian

(b) Evaluating the theory of kingship of the Sultanate, discuss the deviations seen in the reign of different Sultans.


Topic: Establishment  of the Delhi Sultanate

(c) “The Battle of Plassey that decided the fate of Bengal was won by Clive through intrigues.” Explain.


Topic: Establishment  of the Delhi SultanatThe Eighteenth century Early Establishment of Britisher

  1. (a) To what extent is ‘Segmentary State model relevant for defining the Vijayanagara State? Critically examine.


Topic: Sultanat15th-16th Centuries – The Vijay Nagar Empire

(b) How was Iqta system of the Sultans different from the Jagir system under the Mughals?


Sultanat15th-16th Centuries -Jagir and Mansab systems

Topic: Establishment  of the Delhi Sultanat

(c) “India had been for hundreds of years the Lancashire of the Eastern world.” Critically examine this view.


Topic: Culture Tradition in India

Paper-II :   2014 

Section ‘A’

  1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each: 10 x 5 = 50

(a)   “Plassey did not complete the British conquest of India. Had the English been convincingly defeated in any subsequent battle in India, then (the battle of plassey) would have remained as a minor episode in the history of India.”


Topic: European Penetration into India-The battle of Plassey

(b)  “Montague-Chelmsford reform proposals introduced ‘Diarchy’, but blurred the lines of responsibility.”


Topic: Early structure of the British Raj from diarchy to direct control

(c)   “The military, feudal and traditional overtones of the Revolt of 1857 were overshadowed by its nationalist or proto-nationalist character.”                           10

Topic: Indian Response to British Rule – the Great Revolt of 1857

(d)  “The ‘safety-valves thesis’ does not adequately explain the birth of the Indian National Congress in 1855.”


Topic: Constitutional development in the colonial India of 1885

(e)   “M.K.Gandhi made a gross mistake in championing the Khilafat cause, an extra-territorial issue which cut at the very roots of the Indian nationality.”


Topic: Rise of Gandhi-Khilafat Movement

  1. (a) “The Dual system of government was a complete failure from the outset. In the first place, the abuse of the private trade reached a greater height than ever. In the second place, the demands of the company for the increase led to gross oppression of the peasantry.” Examine.


Topic: Early structure of the British Raj-From diarchy to direct control

(b) “…….. instead of rejecting the plan (Cabinet            Mission Plan), they (the Congress Leadership) restored to a half-baked legalistic strategy to reverse their position on its long-term arrangements and accepted its short-term provisions.” Critically examine.


Topic: Indian National Congress and Cabinet Mission Plan

(c) “Dalit movements for empowerment in independent India have essentially been for carving out political space through electoral politics.” Discuss.


Topic: Caste and Ethnicity after 1947-Dalit movement

  1. (a) “Politics remained for the bulk of the Moderates very much a part-time affair. The Congress was not a political party, but an annual three-day show….” Elucidate.


Topic: Factor leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism – the moderate and extremists

(b) “The Anti-Partition Agitation (1909) had an economic character in Bengal unlike the Extremist Agitation in Maharashtra which had a religious character.” Examine. 20

Topic: Factor leading to the birth of Indian Natinalism

(c) “Sardar Patel accomplished a silent revolution by ensuring the absorption and assimilation of a multitude of principalities without shedding even a drop of blood. Elucidate.


Topic: Consolidation as a National – Integration of princely states

  1. (a) “Though Sri Ramakrishna became the prophet of neo-Hinduism, he never claimed to have founded any new religion.” Elaborate.


Topic: Social & Cultural Development

(b) “Why did the British finally quit India on 15th August, 1947? The Imperialist answer is that independence was simply the fulfillment of Britain’s self-appointed mission to assist the Indian people to self-government.” Examine.


Topic: Colonial India and Evolutional Power

(c) To what extent did the Freedom Movement in India influence the Liberation Movement in Africa?


Topic: India and her Neighbours



  1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each:

10 x 5 = 50

(a)   “Rousseau strove the reconcile the liberty of the individual and the institution of Government through a new vision of the Contract-theory of Government.”


Topic: Enlightenment and Modern Idea – Rousseau

(b)  “The commercial and industrial interests created a veritable hothouse atmosphere in Europe for the establishment of colonies.”


Topic: Industrialization – Industrialization and Globalization

(c)   “Enlightened despots (Europe) were not necessarily politically liberal.”


Topic: Revolution and Counter Revolution – Fascist counter – Revolution

(d)  “…. the passing of the ‘Reform Act’ marked the real beginning of modern party organisation in England…. In a real sense, the present political system of England dates from 1832.”


Topic: Origins of Modern politics – British Democratic Politics

(e)   “The Russo-Japanese War helped In the rise of Japan as a great power.”


Topic: World war – World War-II

  1. (a) “American revolution seems to have come with remarkable suddenness. A roster of talented leaders emerged during 1763 to 1775 to make it happen.” Elucidate.


Topic: America Revolution and the constitution

(b) “If we were to define our conception of the State, our answer would be that the State is the banker of the poor. The government would finance and supervises the purchase of productive equipment and the formation of social workshop.” In light of the above statement of Louis Blanc, throw light on the Pre-Marxist Socialist thought in Europe.


Topic: European states system

(c) To what extent did the expansion of European Powers in the late 19th century help in modernization of Africa?


Topic: Decolonization and underdevelopment – Africa – Apartheid of Democracy

  1. (a) “The declaration of rights was the death-warrant of the system of privilege, and so of the ancient regime…. Yet in the history of ideas it belonged rather to past than to the future.” Examine.


Topic: Decolonization

(b) Critically examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration in Europe and Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries.


Topic: Imperialism and Colonialism

(c) Discuss the circumstances leading to the Suez crisis of 1956 and examine its repercussions on global politics.


Topic: Decolonization

  1. (a) “Europe was eclipsed through European folly due to the two world wars.” Elucidate.


Topic: Ist and 2nd world war total wars – Societal implication

(b) “The language of narrow nationalism held at Frankfurt destroyed the German Revolution; as the fatal idea of aggrandisement of the House of Savoy destroyed the Italian Revolution.” Discuss.


Topic: Nationalism – State-building in Germany and Italy

(c) Discuss the nature of American overseas expansion in Asia and explain the consequences.

Topic: Origins of modern politics

Paper-I :   2013

Section ‘A’

  1. Identify the following places marked on the outline map in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet supplied to you and write a short note of about 30 words on each of them in the space provided in the Booklet. Locational hints for each of the places marked on the map are given below seriatim:

2 ½ x 20 = 50

(i)        A Palaeolithic and Mesolithic site.

(ii)       A Mesolithic site.                        2½

(iii)      An important halting place.       

(iv)      A Pre-Harappan site.                   2½

(v)       An important Harappan site.       2½

(vi)      Site of important fossils.            

(vii)     A Sea-port.                                 

(viii)    A Palaeolithic site.                     

(ix)      A Neolithic, Megalithic and Chalcolithic site.                          2½

(x)       A Harappan site.                          2½

(xi)      A Palaeolithic site.                      2½

(xii)     A Palaeolithic site.                     

(xiii)    A Chalcolithic site.                      

(xiv)    A Chalcolithic site.                     

(xv)     A site Buddhist Monastery.         

(xvi)    Painted Grey Ware site               

(xvii)   Site related to a famous Indian Philosopher.                                 2½

(xviii)  Historical Rock-cut caves.         

(xix)    Famous Fort.                               

(xx)     Capital of famous Kingdom.         

  1. (a) Evaluate various views regarding human settlements as gleaned from the Vedic sources.


Topic: Aryans and Vedic Period

(b) Discuss the water management and its conversation planning in the Harappan (Indus-Saraswati) cities.


Topic: Indus Valley Civilisation

(c) In the absence of a written script Chalcolithic pottery gives us a fascinating insight into the culture and lifestyles of the people of those times. Comment critically.


Topic: Pre-History and Proto-History

  1. (a) On the basis of contemporary sources assess the nature of banking and usuary in ancient India.


Topic: Later Vedic Period

(b) Social norms for women in the Dharmasastra and Arthasastra tradition were framed in accordance with the Varnashrama tradition. Evaluate critically8.


Topic: Vedic Period – Society and Culture

(c) “The varna concept may always have been largely a theoretical model and never an actual description of society.” Comment in the context of Ancient India.


Topic: Aryans – Vedic Society

  1. (a) Evaluate the contribution of the Puranas in disseminating secular knowledge among the masses in ancient India.


Topic: Aryans-Vedic Period

(b) Evaluate the ownership of land in ancient India on the basis of literary and epigraphic sources.


Topic: Sources of History

(c) Explain as to how the early Buddhist Stupa art, while using fort motifs and narratives and common cultural symbols, succeeded in transforming these themes for expounding the Buddhist ideals.


Topic: Maurayan Empire and Culture




  1. Write short notes in not more than 150 words on each of the following: 10 x 5 = 50

(a)   Evaluate the Malfuzat texts as sources of medieval history.


Topic: Sufism in Islamic Religion

(b)  Discuss the state of society and economy of the Bahmani kingdom as gleaned from historical sources.


Topic: 15th C. – 16th C – Rise of Provincial Dynastic Monarchy

(c)   Give a sketch of Indian trade with Europe during the Mughal period.


Topic: 16th C. – 17th C – Mughal Economies

(d)  Analyse the steps taken by Razia Sultan to strengthen her position as an independent ruler despite the various obstacles.


Topic: 13th C. – Delhi Sultanate

(e)   Bhakti and mysticism of Lal Ded emerged as a social force in Kashmir. Comment.


Topic: 14th C. – Society & Culture

  1. (a) Evaluate the condition of industries in India from 1200 – 1500 CE. 20

Topic: 12th C. – 15th C. 0 Indian Economy

(b) On the basis of contemporary sources evaluate the system of agriculture and irrigation of the Vijayanagar kingdom.


Topic: Economy of Vijay Nagar Empire

(c) Critically evaluate the educational development during the Sultanate period.


Topic: 13th C. – The Society and Education of Delhi Sultanate

  1. (a) On the basis of the accounts of Europeans bring out the agrarian crisis of the 17thcentury CE India.


Topic: 16th C. – 17th C. – Mughal Economy

(b)  Evaluate critically the conditions of labour from 1200-1500 CE on the basis of historical sources.


Topic: 12th C. – 15th C. – Social Condition

(c) Discuss and evaluate critically various trends in the historiography of bhakti. 


Topic: Bhakti Movement in Medieval India

  1. (a) Analyse how the political process of state formation of Mewar form 10th-15thcentury CE challenged the 16th century CE by the imperialist policy of Akbar.


Topic: Akbar – Conquests and Consolidation of the Empire

(b) Assess the Lekhapaddhati as an important source for evaluating the society and economy of the thirteenth century CE with special reference to Gujarat.


Topic: Provincial Dynasties Gujarat Society and Economy

(c)   Assess the development of Science and Technology in the Mughal period.


Topic: Science & Technology in Mughal Period

Paper-II :   2013

Section ‘A’

(Modern India)

  1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each

10 x 5 = 50

(a)   “Dupleix made a cardina blunder in looking for the key of India in Madras: Clive sought and found it in Bengal.”

Topic: British Success in India

(b)  Swami Vivekananda opined that “We should give our ancient spirituality and culture and get in return Western Science, technology, methods of raising the standard of life, business integrity and technique of collective effort.”

Topic: Social & Religious Reform Movement

(c)   “Ryotwari falls into three stages- early, middle and late, and the on;y description common to all is that it is made of settlement with small farmers, so small, indeed, that their average holding is, on recent figures, only about 6 ½ acres.”

Topic: Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule

(d)  “Many of us who worked for the Congress programme lived in a kind of intoxication during the year 1921.  We were full of excitement and optimism. We had a sense of freedom and we had pride I that freedom.”

Topic: Indian Response to British Rule

(e)   “Gandhi’s body is in jail but his soul is with you, India’s prestige is in your hands, you must not use any violence under any circumstances. You will be beaten but you must not resist; you must not raise a and to ward off blows.”

Topic: Rise of Gandhi and Character of Gandhian Nationalism

  1. (a) “Weaving”, says R.C. Dutt, “was the national industry of the people and spinning was the pursuit of millions of women.” Indian textiles went to England and other parts of Europe, to China and Japan and Burma and Arabia and Persia and parts of Africa. Evaluate.


Topic: Dislocation of Traditional Trade and Commence in British India

(b) “The first point to note is the continuing importance of religion and philosophy as vital ingredients in the modern India Renaissance.  Indeed, there is as much reason of regarding it as a reformation as there is for treating it as a Renaissance.” Critically examine.


Topic: Social & Cultural Development

  1. (a) “At the dawn of the twentieth century Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, was full of hostility towards the Indian National Congress and the confidentiality reported for the Secretary of State in November 1900. My own belief is that the Congress is tottering to its fall, and one of my greatest ambitions while in India is to assist it to a peaceful demise.” Examine.

Topic: The Foundation of The Indian National Congress

(b) “Though the act of 1919 was superseded by that of 1935, the preamble to the former was not repealed- the preservation of the smile of the Cheshire cat after its disappearance, and the latter said nothing about Dominion Status.” Elucidate.

Topic: Constitutional Development in the Colonial India

  1. (a) Notwithstanding the quest for modernity and the antagonism that guided Nehru’s attitude towards the inequalities inherent to the social structure in rural India, the Congress party did not carry out a concerted campaign against discrimination based on caste. Nehru’s own perception was that industrial growth was bound to break the stranglehold of this feudal remnant. This, however, did not happen in India.” Examine.


Topic: Nehru’s Social Policy

(b) “The reorganization resulted in rationalizing the political map of India without seriously weakening its unity. If anything, its result has been functional, in as much as it removed what had been a major source of discord, and created homogenous political units which could be administered through a medium that the vast majority of the population understood. Indeed, it can be said with the benefit of hindsight that language, rather than being a force for division, has proved a cementing and integrating influence.” Examine.


Topic: Social & Cultural Development in British India



  1. Critically examine the following statements in about 150 words each: 10 x 5 = 50

(a)   “For Kant, Enlightenment is mankind’s final coming of age, the emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance and error.”

Topic: Enlightenment and Modern Ideas

(b)  “Six hundred thousand men had died. The Union was preserved, the slaves freed. A nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal’ had survived its most terrible ordeal.”

Topic: Origin of Modern Politics

(c)   “Colonialism not only deprives a society of its freedom and its wealth, but of its very character, leaving its people intellectually and morally disoriented.”

Topic: Liberation From Colonial Rule

(d)  “If the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (that resulted in the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Soviet Union) inaugurated an international competition for the hearts and minds of people all over the globe,the Chinese Revolution raised the stakes of that struggle.”

Topic:  Revolution and Counter Revolution

(e)   “Decolonization has finished. It definitely belongs to the past. Yet somehow it has refused to become history.”

Topic: Decolonization and Underdevelopment

  1. (a) “In spite of the careful framing of the Charter, the role of UNO as peacekeeper and international mediator has been somewhat lacklustre and muted and that continues to be so even after the end of Cold War.” Elucidate.


Topic: The World After World War – II

(b) “Change on Britain came comparatively peacefully through democratic process in the first half of the nineteenth century and a model of a functioning democracy through ballot box was successfully pun in place.” Elaborate.


Topic: British Democratic Politics

  1. (a) “New imperialism was a nationalistic, not an economic phenomenon.” Critically examine.


Topic: Imperialism and colonialism

(b) “By the 1980s, the Communist system of the Soviet Union was incapable of maintaining the country’s role as a Superpower.” Elucidate.


Topic: Soviet Communism and Soviet Union

  1. (a) “The European Union is the new sick man of Europe.” Critically evaluate.


Topic: European States System

(b) “There must be an end to white monopoly on political power, and a fundamental restructuring of our political and economic systems to ensure that the inequalities of apartheid are addressed and our society thoroughly democratized.” Discuss.


Topic: Rise of Socialist Ideas



Archaelogical and Literary Sources

  1. Assess the pattern of settlement, economy, social organisation and religion of India during 2000 to 500 BC from archaeological evidences.


  1. Discuss the changing approaches to the study of early Indian History.


  1. “Reconstruction of Early Indian history is hardly possible without the help of inscriptions and coins.” Discuss.


  1. In what ways are the accounts of the Greco-Romans and the Chinese helpful in reconstructing the social history of India? How far is their information corroborated by other contemporary sources?


  1. To what extent archaeological materials are useful in understanding the progress of Neolithic man in India?


  1. Justify Pliny’s statement that Rome was being drained out of its gold by India during the first century of the Christian era.




Neolithic and Chalcolithic

  1. Describe the distinguishing features of important archaeological cultures of the Indian subcontinent datable between c. 2000 B.C. and c. 500 B.C

.                (95/I/2/60)

  1. Trace the development of urbanization from the third millennium B.C.E. to 6thcentury B.C.E.




Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline

  1. Write brief essay on External trade of the Harappans. (91/I/1(a)/20)
  2. Analyse the differences and similarities between Indus valley and Vedic cultures.


  1. Write brief essay: The burial customs in Indus Civilization.


  1. Write brief essay on: The religion of the Indus Civilization.


  1. Discuss salient features of the Indus Valley Civilization. Mention important places from where relics of civilization have been recovered so far. Examine causes of its decline.


  1. Analyse the elements of urban civilization in the Harappan Culture. What factors were responsible for its decline?


Survival and Significance

  1. Discuss the pattern of trade during the Indus Valley civilization. How far did it affect the nature of contemporary settlements in the Indian subcontinent?


Culture, Art and Architecture

  1. “The continuity of the Indus Civilization into later stages was not confined to the religious and spiritual fields along.” Analyse the statement.


  1. Discuss the distribution and significance of farming cultures outside the Indus system.


  1. Evaluate the significance of seals and sealings to the reconstruction of socio-economic and religious life of the Harappan people.


  1. Discuss the extent, settlements pattern and subsistence economy of the megalithic cultures.




Expansion of Aryans

  1. Briefly discuss: Geographical distribution of the early Vedic people.


Rig Vedic Period

  1. In what ways does religion as reflected in the Vedic texts differ from the religion of the Gupta period?


  1. Write brief essay on the Vedic Gods of the terrestrial region.


  1. Bring out the elements of change and continuity between the early Vedic and Later Vedic Cultures.


  1. Write brief essay on Vedic Literature.


  1. Write brief essay on Vedic rituals.


  1. Evaluate the various approaches to the understanding of Vedic religion.


  1. Examine the view that the sacrifice was a ritual and a form of social exchange in Vedic India.


LaterVedic Period

  1. Give a brief account of the social and economic conditions of the Later Vedic Aryans. What role did iron play in changing their political and economic life?


  1. Describe the social life of the later Vedic people. How was it different from the Rig-Vedic people?


Vedic society, Polity, Economy, Culture

  1. Evaluate the conceptual basis of the Vedic deities.



Formation of States (Mahajanapadas & related development)

  1. Give an account of the republics in the pre-Maurya period. Discuss the factors which contributed to their decline.


  1. Write brief essay on social and economic conditions of North India during the pre-Maurya period (600-325 B.C.).


  1. “The sixth century B.C. was a period of religious and economic unrest in India.” Comment.


  1. Assess the status of women in India from 4thcentury BC to AD 6th century.


  1. Evaluate the introduction of iron technology in the development of human history of ancient India.


Jainism and Buddhism

  1. Write brief essay on essence of Early Jainism.


  1. Explain the social aspects of Buddhism and account for its decline in India.


  1. Write what you know of the rise and spread of Buddhism before the first century A.D.


  1. Assess the importance of Jain tenets and their relevance to humanity.


  1. Discuss the caurapancashika and Jain styles of paintings. Can the caurapancashikastye truly be called the precursor of pothi format?


Rise of Magadhas and Nandas

  1. Analyse the causes of the success of the Magadhan imperialism up to the reign of Ashoka the Great.




Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra

  1. Determine the extent of the Mauryan empire.


Ashoka and relat7ed developments/social, religious and economic characteristics

  1. Write brief essay on contents of Ashoka’s dhamma and reasons for Ashoka’s keenness in propagate dhamma.


  1. Write brief essay on Inscriptions of Ashoka.


  1. Examine sources of information for Mauryan dynasty. Throw light on historical significance of Ashoka’s inscriptions.


  1. How did Ashoka contribute to the moral and administrative welfare of his people?


Mauryan art and culture

  1. Write brief essay on similarities and difference between the Maurya columns and Achaemenian pillars.


  1. Determine the veracity of Megasthenes’ descriptions of Indian Society & Economy with the help of other contemporary evidences.


  1. Write brief essay on architectural & artistic features of the great stupa at Sanchi.


Mauryan administration/social, religious & economic characteristics

  1. Examine the importance of Ashoka’s Rock Edit XIII for determining the extent of the Maurya Empire. Did Ashoka’s policies and reforms contribute to the fall of the empire?


  1. “The centuries between c. 200 B.C. and c. A.D. 300 constitute a landmark in the socio-religious history of India.” Analyse the proposition.


  1. Write brief essay on Mauryan municipal administration.


  1. Examine the nature of the Mauryan State. Bring out the features of their administrative system.


  1. Examine the role of adhyaksa in the Mauryan administration.


  1. Assess the role of guilds and trade organizations in the development of early Indian economy.




Social, Religious and Cultural developments

  1. Write brief essay on Origins, chronology, characteristics and geographical spread of Gandhara art.


  1. Write brief essay on Buddhist writing in Sanskrit in the post-Maurya period.


  1. Furnish a critical and comparative account of various schools of art in the Post-Mauryan period (c. 200 B.C. – c. 300 A.D.).


  1. Examine the significance of the deities depicted of the coins of the Kushanas.


  1. How are we in characterizing the pos-Mauryan five centuries as the “Dark Period” of Indian History? Give reasons in support of your answer.



Kharavela, The Satvahanas

  1. Discuss the military activities of Kharavela of Kalinga. Do you think that his reign is significant for military expeditions alone?


Tamil States of the Sangam Age

(Administration, Economy and Culture)

  1. How do recent archaeological finding and Sangam literary texts enlighten us about the early state and society in South India?


Art and Architecture

  1. Bring out the regional variations in the early South Indian temples’ architectural styles.



Gupta Emperors/ Polity and Administration

  1. What are salient features of the administrative system of the Guptas?


  1. Describe the expansion of the Gupta empire under Samudragupta.


Economic Conditions, coinage, land grants

  1. Give an account of the use of gold coins by commoners in the Gupta Period.


Social conditions- feudalism, caste system, position of women

  1. Write brief essay on Origins and meaning of the samanta system.


  1. Write brief essay on The Samanta sysyem.


  1. Throw light on the condition of common man in the Gupta period.


  1. What light do early inscriptions and literature throw on the status of women in politico-socio-economic spheres?


Education, Literature, Culture, Art & Architecture/Contribution of Guptas

  1. Analyse the characteristic features of the Gupta art and compare them with those of the Mauryan art.


  1. Write brief essay on Nalanda Mahavira.


  1. How did Indian culture spread in the South-East Asian countries during the Gupta Age?


  1. Highlight the achievements of the Gupta period in the field of literature, science and technology.


  1. Examine the information of Fahien about the political, religious, social and economic conditions of India. Make a comparative study of his account with that of Yuan Chwang.


Decline of Guptas

  1. Write brief essay on factors that led to the Rise and fall of the Gupta Empire.


  1. Write brief essay on Skandagupta’s wasr with Hunas.


Harshavardhan & Contemporary rulers

  1. “Of all the events that had a singular being on the history of India, Harsha’s death in 647 A.D. is significant.” Why? Explain.


  1. ‘Harshavardhan was himself great, but he has been made greater by Ban and Yuan Chaing.’ Critically examine the statement.


  1. Who were the Maukharis? Discuss their political relations with the later Guptas of Magadha.



The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami & related aspects

  1. In what ways would the period of the Pallavas of the Kanchi and that of the Chalukyas of Badami mark the beginning of a new historical phase in peninsular India?


  1. Assess the acivements of the Pallavas in administration and art.


  1. Give an account of the struggle for supremacy in South India between the Chalukyas of Badamiand the Pallavas.


  1. Give an account of rise of the Chalukyas of Vatapi and their struggle with other rulers. Write a note on their patronage of arts.


  1. Analyse the vibrant cultural activities in peninsular India during 550-750 CE. Compare and contrast it with the situation in contemporary North India.


Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras and related aspects

  1. Discuss the role of Rashtrakutas for the mastery of Kanauj and assess their contribution to art and culture.


  1. “Achieving dominance in south of the Vindhyas did not satisfy the ambitions of the Rashtrakutas, they also wanted to achieve dominance over the Gangetic Plains.” Elaborate and comment.


  1. Critically evaluate thecontribution of Rashtrakutasto art and culture.


  1. Did the triangular conflict between the Rashtrakutas, Gujara Pratiharas and Palas create a political vaccum in northern India which facilitated the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazini?


Arab conquest of Sind, Alberuni

  1. Write brief essay of Al-Biruni’s India.


  1. Attempt a critical essay on the Indian Science and civilization in the light of Alberuni’s writings. What merits and drawback do you find in his account?


  1. Write brief essay on Alberuni on Science in India.



Major stages in the evolution of art and architecture

  1. Discuss the major stages in the evolution of architecture during the ancient period.


  1. Assess Ellora as a unique art centre of the different cultural streams.


Major philosophical thinkers & schools, ideas in Science and Maths

  1. Discuss the scientific and technological developments in ancient India.


  1. Trace the scientific & technological developments in India up to c. A.D. 750.


  1. Examine the proficiency of the ancient Indians in various crafts, science and mathematics.


  1. Discuss the types of lands and the science of agriculture mentioned in the literature and epigraphs of ancient India.


  1. Assess the educational system in early India and identify important educational institutions of the period.




Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula: Origin, rise and decline of Rajputs

  1. Write brief essay – Rana Pratap’s patriotism was his only offence.


  1. “The inferior cavalry of the Rajputs was not the only cause of their defeat at the hands of Turko-Afghans and Mughals.” Comment.


  1. Write brief essay on Hemu Vikramaditya.


The Cholas: administration, village, economy and society

  1. Critically assess the period of the Cholas in the history of South India.


  1. Write brief essay on Local self-government under the Cholas.


  1. Discuss the contribution of Rajaraja I and Rajendra I for the expansion of the Chola empire. Analyse the causes and impact of the naval expeditions of the Cholas.


  1. Assess the importance of the Cholas in the history of South India.


  1. Critically evaluate the achievements of the Cholas.


  1. Were the Chola village assemblies democratic in nature? Give reasons for your answer.


  1. The Cholas are said to have established a strong and well organized administration with an element of self-government at the local level. Do you agree? Give reasons.


  1. Show that the administrative system in India reached a very high level during the Chola period.


  1. How far can the village assemblies or communities under the Cholas be really called democratic?


  1. Assess the contribution of the Cholas in the expansion of Indian culture outside India.


  1. Evaluate the role of nadu and nagaram in the growth of urbanisation under the Cholas.


“Indian Feudalism”: agrarian economy & urban settlements; trade and commerce

  1. Write a brief note on land charters of north India (c. A.D. 750-1200).


  1. Write short essay on applicability of the term ‘Indian Feudalism’ to early Medieval society.


  1. To what extent “monetary anemia” afflicted the erstwhile commercial economy during the early medieval period?


  1. Evaluate the socio-economic conditions from the Gupta period to 1200 C.E. as gleaned from the various types of grants or dana shasana.


  1. What kind of changes were visualised by historians on Indian feudalism? Examine critically.


Society: the new social order, condition of women

  1. Give an account of the society in Northern and Central India since the death of Harsha to the Muslim conquest of North India.


  1. Write brief essay on Social structure of the Rajputs.


Indian Science and Technnology

  1. Write brief essay on Savai jai Singh, the astronomer.




Philosophy: Sankaracharya, Ramanuja and Madhva

  1. Write brief essay on the Vedanta of Sankaracharya.


Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam, Sufism

  1. Trace influence of Islam on Indian culture and civilization.


  1. Write brief essay: The Sufi movement & its role in promoting communal harmony.


  1. Evaluate the impact of the Sufi and Bhakti Movements on vernacular languages & life and thought of the common people.


  1. Write brief essay on Origin of the Bhakti Movement.


  1. Write brief essay on Sufi Movements.


  1. What are the manifestations of Tamil devotional cults? How do you account for their growth between C. 750 and C. 1200 CE?


  1. Assess the contribution of the Acharyas in the development of the ideological basis of bhakti.


  1. Trace the religious developments that took place in India from the eighth to 12th century.


Literature: Sanskrit, Tamil and other languages

  1. Growth of regional languages and the literature during the medieval period.


  1. Assess Kalhana’s views on history.


  1. Evaluate Rajtarangini as a source of history.


Art & Architecture

  1. Do you agree with view that the form and content of temple architecture in South India between c. A.D. 750 and 1200 were products of a specific economic and political milieu?


  1. How far do you agree with the view that the temples in the early medieval period were catalysts in spreading education?




Establishment of Delhi Sultanate, The Ghurian invasion, economic social and cultural consequences

  1. Write brief essay on Ziauddin Barani as a historian.


  1. Write brief essay on historical significance of the advent of Arabs in India.


  1. Give a critical assessment of the contributions of Amir Khusru and Barani to Indo-Persian literature.


Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans, consolidation: The rule of Iltutmis and Balban

  1. Balban’s theory of kingship.


  1. Give an estimate of Ghiasuddin Balban.


  1. Discuss Balban’s concept of kingship. How was it modified by Alauddin Khalji?


  1. Write brief essay on The ‘Corps of Forty’ and its relations with the Sultans.


  1. Bring out the main features of the administrative system under Delhi Sultanate during Turko-Afghan period.


  1. Write short essay on The ‘Corps of Forty’ and its relations with the Sultans.


  1. Assess the contribution of Iltutmish for the expansion and consolidation of the Delhi Sultanate.


  1. How did the Mongol invasions affect the Delhi Sultanate and the north-western frontier policy of the Delhi Sultans?




The Khalji Revoluton – AlauddinKhalji

  1. What, in your opinion, was the significance of the extensive military expeditions undertaken during the time of Alauddin Khalji? Do you think his reign is considered significant in terms of such expeditions alone?


  1. Examine the significance of Aluddin Khalji’s in implementing these measures?


  1. Discuss the implications of Khilji with reference to administration and economic regulations on the State and people of India.


  1. Write brief essay – Alauddin Khilji was a typical despot.


  1. Assess the impact of the market reforms of Alauddin Khilji on contemporary economy and society.


  1. Write brief essay on the Khilji revolution.


  1. Examine critically the agrarian and economic reforms of Alauddin Khilji. How did it strengthen the Sultanate?


Muhammad Tughluq

  1. Muhammad Bin Tughluq’s contradictory qualities were beyond the knowledge and common sense. Evaluate the significance of his administrative measures and policies in the light of this statement.


  1. Write brief essay on experiments of Mohammad Tughluq.


  1. Write brief essay on The Token Currency system introduced by Muhammad Tughluq.


  1. Write short essay on Muhammad Tughluq as an agrarian innovator.


  1. What is your assessment of Ibn Batutah’s Rehla as an important source of Indian history?


Firuz Tughluq

  1. Form an estimate of the personality of Firoz Shah Tughluq with special reference to his religious policy and public works.




  1. Write brief essay on Indo-Islamic architecture during the Khalji and Tughluq period.


  1. Write brief essay – Amir Khusro was an eminent poet not a historian.



  1. Make a comparative review of the agrarian reforms of Alau-ud-Din Khalij and Sher Shah Suri.


  1. Do you agree with the view that the advent of the Turks and the Mughals in India heralded many changes in the means of production? Give reasons in support of your answer.


  1. Throw light on the Land Revenue system of Sultanate period.


  1. Identify the main factors that sustained the expansion of urban economy in the Delhi Sultanate.


  1. Examine the increasing importance of maritime trade of India during thirteenth to fifteenth centuries.


  1. Analyse the racial composition and the role of nobility under the successors of Iltutmish. How did it affect the contemporary politics?



Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kahsmir, Gujarat, Malwa, bahmanids

  1. Write brief essay on Kalhan as historian.


  1. Write brief essay on the Bahmani kingdom.


  1. Write brief essay on the Bahmani kingdom.


The Vijayanagar Empire

  1. Discuss social dynamics in the Vijayanagara empire.


The Sur Empire

  1. Explain the historical importance of Tuzuk-i-Babari.


Portuguese Colonial enterprise

  1. Write brief essay on Portuguese control of the Indian Ocean and its impact.


  1. Write short essay on significance of the arrival of the Portuguese in India.


Bhakti & Sufi Movements

  1. What impact did Kabir and Nanak leave on Indian society and culture.


  1. Discuss the growth of the NIrguna School of Bhakti movement emphasising the contribution of Kabir and Nanak to it.


  1. Write brief essay on Chaitanyadeva and Vaishnavism.


  1. “The tenets of Hindu and Muslim mystics were similar enough that the ground was ripe for syncretic movements involving adherents of both religions.” Elucidate.


  1. Write brief essay on Sufism in North India.


  1. “The tenets of Hindu and Muslim mystics were similar enough that the ground was ripe for syncretic movements involving adherents of both religions.” Elucidate.



Regional cultural specificities, literary traditions, provincial architecture

  1. “Ancient Indians has no taste for historiography; their scholar cared more for religious, spiritual and philosophical studies. Indian historiography is essentially an Islamic heritage….” Comment upon this statement with special reference to the contemporary writes and their works which help us in the reconstruction of history of the early Medieval period of Indian history.


Vijaynagar Empire- Society, Culture, Literature and art

  1. What light do inscriptions and accounts of European travellers throw on the antecedents and legacy of the administrative structure of the Vijayanagar Empire?


  1. Write brief essay on architecture of the Vijaynagara empire.


  1. AKBAR

Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems/Land Revenue system

  1. Analyse the merits and demerits of the Mansabdari system. How did it work under Akbars’s successors?


  1. Write brief essay on Mansabdari system.


  1. Examine the Mansab and Jagir system by Akbar and its subsequent failure in the 18thcentury.


Rajput Policy/administration

  1. “Akbar built the Mughal Empire by enlisting the support of the Rajputs, Aurangzeb destroyed it by alienating the Rajputs.” Discuss critically.


Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy

  1. Highlight the catholicity of Akbar’s regime with suitable examples.


  1. Trace the evolution of the religious views of Akbar. Write a note on his policy of Sulhi-i-kul.


  1. Write brief essay: Was Din-i-Ilahi’ a monument of Akbar’s folly?


  1. Write brief essay on Religious tolerance of Akbar.


  1. Write short essay on Implications of Akbar’s notion of Sulh-i-Kul.


Court patronage of art & technology

  1. Give an estimate of Akbar as a promoter of technology.



Jahangir – administrative & religious policies

  1. Write brief essay on Nurjahan.


Aurangzeb – administrative & religious policies

  1. “Aurangzeb is a much maligned monarch.” Argue the case for and against the proposition.


  1. Changes in the composition of nobility from Akbar to Aurangzeb. Comment.


  1. Write brief essay – Spanish ulcer ruined Napoleon Bonaparte, the Deccan ulcer ruined Aurangzeb.


  1. In what ways were Aurangzeb’s Rajput and religious policies different from those of his predecessors? What were the consequences of the changes made by him?


  1. Write brief essay on Dara Shikoh.


Nature of the Mughal State/Achievement

  1. What were the major features of the administrative system of the Mughal state? To what extent did other Indian powers model their administration on this system in the late medieval period?


  1. Comment on the Turco-Mongol theory of sovereignty. To what extent was it adopted by Babur and Humayun?


Late 17th century crisis and the revolts

  1. “The major causes of revolts against the Mughal Empire during the latter half of the 17thcentury were economic, rather than religious.” Discuss.


The Ahom Kingdom

  1. Write short essay on the Ahom Kingdom in 200 words.


Shivaji & the early Maratha Kingdom

  1. Shivaji was great organizer and builder of civil institutions, examine this statement in the light of the difficulties of administration and the extent of success achieved by him.


  1. Write brief essay on meaning and features of the Maharashtra Dharma.


  1. Shivaji’s rise to power cannot be treated as an isolated phenomenon in Maratha history. It was a much result of his personal daring and heroism as of the peculiar geographical situation of the Deccan country and the unifying religious influences that were animating the people with new hopes and aspirations in the 15thand 16th centuries. Explain.


  1. Examine circumstances leading to rise of Shivaji. Throw light on his legacy.


  1. Were the Marathas restricted by their geopolitical limitations form becoming the paramount power of India?


  1. How did Shivaji organize his administration and finances to consolidate his power?


  1. Give social background to the rise of the Maratha movement during the seventeenth century.



Population, Agricultural production, Craft production

  1. Delineate the striking features of agricultural and craft production during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in India. How did they impact the social fabric of the country?


  1. Write short essay on estimates of population of Mughal India.


  1. Discuss different types of Karkhanas in Mughal India. How was the production organized in the Karkhanas?


  1. What was Indian response of European Technology?


Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English & French companies: a trade revolution

  1. Write brief essay on Mughals and the British East India Company.


  1. Give your opinion on the urban development in India during the Mughal times.


  1. Examine the factors which were responsible for opening and development of European trade for India during the 16thand 17th centuries.


  1. Critically evaluate various approaches to study medieval Indian towns.


  1. Medieval Indian towns were merely an extension of villages. Comment.


Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

  1. Write short essay on evolution of the Khalsa Panth.



Persian histories & other literature

  1. Write brief essay on Babarnama as a source of history.


  1. Provide a comparative analysis of the development of Arabic and Persian historiography.


Mughal architecture, painting, classical music

  1. Write brief essay on Mughal official histories and auto-biographical works.


  1. Write brief essay on Narrative paintings under Jahangir and Akbar.



  1. Trace the development of art and architecture under the Mughals and point out mingling of Hindu elements in them.


  1. Write brief essay during the reign of Jahangir Mughal painting reached its zenith.


  1. Write brief essay on the zenith of the Mughal architecture under Shahjahan.


  1. Explain the principal features of architecture during Akbar’s rule. What changes were made to them by Shahjahan.


  1. Write brief essay on Mughal painting.



  1. Write a short essay on the development of literature during the Mughal period.


  1. Write brief essay on Mughal painting.


  1. Mughal paintings reflect the contemporary socio-political condition. Discuss.



Factors for the decline of the Mughal empire

  1. Describe the Rajput policy of the Mughal emperors. Do you agree with the view that the reversal of Akbar’s Rajput policy by Aurangzeb was responsible for the disintegration of the Mughal empire?


  1. Akbar built the Mughal empire by enlisting the support of the Rajputs, Aurangzeb destroyed it by alienating the Rajputs. Do you agree?


The Marathas fiscal & financial system

  1. Write brief essay on Chauth and Sardeshmukhi.


  1. Write brief essay on the system of the collection of Chauthand Sardeshmukhi by the Maratha rulers.


  1. Write brief essay on Chauth and Sardeshmukhi of the Maratha rulers.


Emergence of Afghan power, Battle of Panipat-1761

  1. Write brief essay on Third Battle of Panipat.


  1. Write brief essay on consequences of the Third Battle of Panipat.


  1. How was the Afghan nobility responsible for the decline of the Afghan empire? Discuss.


State of politics, culture and economy one the eve of the British conquest

  1. How would you like to characterize the eighteenth century in Indian history?


  1. What are the distinguishing components of the debate on “The Eighteenth century”?


  2. How far is it true to say the strength and vigour of Indian history during c. A.D. 500-750 lay in the south of the Vindhyas?




European penetration into India

  1. “Compared to their English counterpart, the French Eat India Company enjoyed little discretionary power and had to always look up to Paris for all major decisions. This partly explains the failure of the French in India.”


British success in India

  1. ‘This Anglo-Maratha war covering nearly nine years from the murder of Narayan Rao to the Treaty of Salbye emphatically discloses the vitality of the Maratha nation which had not been exhausted either by disaster of Panipat or the death of their great Peshwa Madhavrao.’


  1. ‘On 23 June 1757, the middle ages of India ended and her modern age began.’ Comment.


  1. ‘The treaty of Bassein, by its direct and indirect operations, gave the company the empire of India.’ Comment.


  1. How did the British establish their control over Maharashtra in the first two decades of the 19thcentury? Why did the Maratha challenge ultimately collapse?


  1. “By certain of his actions Clive has marred both the glory and usefulness of his work.” Comment.


  1. The British conquest of Sind was both a political and moral sequel to the first Afghan war. Comment.


  1. “The verdict of Plassey was confirmed by the English victory at Buxar.” Comment.


  1. The British conquered India “in a fit of absent mindedness.” Comment.


  1. The British “fought the First Maratha war in a period when their fortunes were at the lowest ebb.” Comment.


  1. How did the British conquer the Bengal in the 18thcentury? What circumstances helped them?


  1. After 1757 thee grew up a State of Bengal which was a “sponsored state” as well as as a “plundered state”. Comment.


  1. The battle of Plassey was “not a great battle but a great betrayal.” Comment.


  1. Sir Charles Napier said, “We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so, and a very advantageous, useful, human piece of rascality it will be.” Comment.


  1. ‘Dalhousie changed the map of India with speed and thoroughness no campaign could equal.’ Comment.


  1. “The verdict at Plassey was confirmed by the English victory at Buxar.” Comment.


  1. “The rise and expansion of British empire was an accident rather than the result of a deliberate policy and design.” Critically examine this statement.


  1. ‘The Treaty of Salbai (1782) was neither honourable to the English nor advantageous to their interests.’ Comment.


  1. ‘Upon the whole, the, I concluded that the treaty of Bassein was wise, just and a political measure.’ Comment.


  1. “Neither Alexander the Great nor Napoleon could have won the empire of India by starting from Pondicherry as a bases and contending with a power which held Bengal and the command of the Sea.” Comment.


  1. Examine the circumstances which led to the Third Mysore war. Could Cornwallis have avoided it?


  1. Why was Mysore considered a threat by the British to their possessions and mercantile interests in the South? Do you think that Tipu Sultan’s posturing became his undoing?


  1. How did the East Indian Company become the dejure power in India?


  1. “Punjab’s fate after Ranjit Singh was foredoomed as the impulse of neo-Victorian Imperialism was bound to overwhelm it.” Elucidate.


Policy of subsidiary alliance and Doctrine of Lapse

  1. Examine the essential principles of the Subsidiary alliance system. How far did it contribute in making the British company the supreme sovereign authority in India?



Colonial economic policies/Colonisation, The English Utilitarian and India

  1. ‘The role of the East India Company proved disastrous to the handicraft industry in India for a number of reasons.’ Comment.


  1. Identify the distinct stages of colonialism in India. How did these stages affect the Indian economy?


  1. Assess the impact of the utilitarian ideas in moulding the British attitude towards India. How did the utilitarian try to solve the problem of land revenue?


  1. “The British Raj had a deeply racist aspect and it ultimately existed to protect colonial exploitation.” Comment.


  1. The Government of India from Canning to Curzon was regarded “as a white man’s burden rather than as a call to creative effort or the preparation for a new era.” Comment.


  1. Economic changes in India form the late 1920s influenced the course of the country’s politics. Elucidate.


  1. The Indian middle class firmly believed that “Britain had imposed a colonial economy on India which had impoverished the country.” Comment.


  1. Discuss the view that the British rule brought about economic changes in India to serve the needs of the imperial economy and establish a dependant form of underdevelopment in this country.


  1. ‘The British industrial policy in the nineteenth century ruined the Indian handicrafts.’ Comment.


  1. “The recurring famines in the 19thcentury was the inevitable consequence of the British policy and expose the real character of the paternal solicitude for the peasantry on the part of the British administration.” Examine this statement critically.


  1. ‘India underwent suffering and mortality in the wake of recurring famines’ in the later half of the 19thcentury.’ Comment.


  1. Trace the development of the famine policy of the British in India between 1876 and 1921. Did it provide relief to the people?


  1. “A self-sufficient village, based on agriculture carried on with the primitive plough and bullock power, and handicrafts by means of simple instruments, was a basic feature of pre-British Indian economy.” Comment.


  1. “Sprung from paternalism, the English Utilitarian philosophy as introduced in India rejected its human warmth between rulers and the ruled.” Comment.


  1. Critically examine the impact of the famine policy on rural India. Describe the official remedial measures undertaken.


  1. “Plantations and mines, jute mills, banking, insurance, shipping and export – import concerns in India were run through a system of interlocking managing agencies.”


  1. “the forces of free trade and the British determination to create a political and administrative environment conducive to trade and investment had shaped the British policy towards India in the first half of the nineteenth century.” Elucidate.


Drain of Wealth

  1. Discuss the causes that led to the ‘economic drain’ in Bengal following the Battle of Plassey.


  1. Write a critique on the impact of the Drain theory of Dadabhai Nauroji in the growth of economic nationalism.


  1. “The need for a unilateral transfer of funds to Britain was a constant factor and in fact, progressively increased over time.” Critically evaluate.


Land Revenue Settlements (Zamindari, Permanent, Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems) Impact on rural India

  1. “The permanent Settlement of Bengal though initiated with best of intentions, was a sadly blundering affairs.’ Comment.


  1. The changing life in Indian village marked best the impact of the British administration on the Indian people. Explain, identifying the process and the extent of the change.


  1. The permanent settlement was a “bold, brave and wise measure.” Comment.


  1. Discuss the main features of the “Ryotwari settlement’ in South India. Did it satisfy the aspirations of the peasantry?


  1. ‘Absentee landlordism was a consequential feature of Bengal’s permanent land settlement.’ Comment.


  1. What was the impact of early British land policy on the ‘village communities’ of North India?


  1. ‘Permanent settlement disappointed many expectations and introduced the results that were not anticipated.’ Comment.


  1. “The impact of government of the people mean essentially the impact of government on the village.” Comment.


  1. Examine the major factors shaping the British land-revenue policy in India. How it affected Indian society?


  1. “Though the Permanent Settlement had serious defects, it gave tranquility to the countryside and stability to the government.” Comment.


  1. What role did the economic ideas play in the early phase of the British rule in the shaping of land tenure policy?




Early uprisings

  1. Discuss the origins and character of major peasant and tribal uprisings in the late 18thand 19th centuries. Were the protest movements backwards – looking?


  1. Tribal movements should be viewed as “History from below”. Discuss the objective & nature of the movements in 19thC. India.


  1. ‘The tribal and peasant rebellion laid the foundation of the revolt of 1857.’ Comment.


  1. “Tribals revolted more often and far more violently than any other community including peasants of India.” Elaborate.


Revolt of 1857

  1. Examine the nature of the Revolt of 1857 and indicate the manifold changes in British civil and military administration of India after 1857.


  1. Do you believe that the uprising in 1857 was nationalist in nature? If not, what was its character?


  1. ‘Whatever might have been its original character, it (Rebellion of 1857) soon became a symbol of challenge to the mighty British power in India.’


  1. “The Revolt of 1857 seemed to call the very presence of the British into question. What it did not do was reverse these changes.” Comment.


  1. “The Annexation of Awadh shook the loyalty of the Sepoys, as it was for them an ultimate proof of untrustworthiness of the British.” Comment.


  1. “In 1857, the rebel sepoys showed a remarkable centripetal tendency to congregate at Delhi.” Do you agree? Substantiate.


Effect of the Revolt of 1857 on British activities

  1. “The new attitude of caution and conservatism can be detected in almost every sphere of British activity in India after the Revolt of 1857.” Comment.



British policy towards Princely

  1. ‘The elations of the native states, however conducted are essentially with the British Crown and not with the Indian government.’ Comment.


  1. ‘No native stat should be left to exist in India which is not upheld by the British power or the political conduct of which is nit under the absolute control.’ Comment.


  1. Explain the British policy of ‘Subordinate Union’ of Indian states with British India from 1858 to 1905. How did the government of India implement this policy during this period?


  1. The British policy towards Indian states in 1818-1858 was one of “isolation and non-interference tempered by annexation.” Comment.


  1. Towards the Princes, Canning adopted a policy of “punishing resistance and rewarding obedience.” Comment.


Official social reform measures

  1. The British Indian State experienced the wind of change with the arrival of Lord William Bentinck.


  1. Discuss the important social reform legislations passed in the 19thcentury, and elucidate the reaction of Indian leaders to the measures adopted.


  1. Examine the impact of British rule on Indian society in the 19thcentury.



  1. Critically evaluate: “The educated middle class in the 19thcentury often found the domain of reason to be oppressive, as it implied the historical necessity of ‘civilizing’ colonial rule.”


  1. “The vernacular press in 19thcentury India served not just as newspapers but more importantly as view-papers.” Comment.


The rise of modern Vernacular literature

  1. “The vernacular press in the nineteenth century was both newspaper as well as ‘views paper’ that enlightened the dormant masses.” Comment.


Christian missionary activities

  1. The Christian missionary propaganda from 1813 onwards was “often insensitive and wounding.” Comment.


Social & religious reform movement

  1. Analyse the main contours of non-Brahmin movements in Western and South India in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries.


  1. Trace the course and comment on the character of caste movements in south India in the 20thcentury. How far was their object achieved?


  1. “The religious movements of teh 19th century were “endeavours to recast the old religion (Hinduism) into a new form suited to meet the needs of the new society.” Comment.


  1. “India broke her British fetters with western hammers.” Comment.


  1. The 19th century Indian renaissance was both an acceptance and rejection of western values. Do you agree?


  1. The Arya Samaj “did not, however, succeed in capturing the imagination of modern India as a whole.” Comment.


  1. “India broke her British fetters with Western hammers”. Comment.


  1. ‘The national democratic awakening of the Indian people found expression also in the religious sphere.’


  1. “So long as the million live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man a traitor who, having been educated at their expense, pays not the least heed to them” Comment.


  1. “Of the evils which corroded Indian society in the nineteenth century were probably those stunted it womanhood.” Comment.


  1. “The Arya Samaj may quite logically be pronounced as the outcome of conditions imported into India by the west” (Lala Lajpat Rai). Comment.


  1. Discuss the extent to which the Indian Renaissance movement consciousness.


  1. Discuss the factors that led to the growth of Dalit consciousness and mention the major movements aimed at their empowerment.


  1. “Young Bengal left little distinctive or permanent impression on the plane of religion and philosophy”. Critically evaluate.


  1. “Orientalism produced a knowledge the past to service the needs of the colonial State.” Elucidate.


Women as focus of Social reform.

  1. To what extent did the socio-religious movements contribute to the emancipation women in the 19th century.


  1. “The Widow Remarriage Act was, in many ways, a logical sequel to the abolition of Sati.” Comment.


  1. How did social legislation in the nineteenth century improve the condition of women in India.



  1. ECONOMY (1958-1914)


  1. Critically evaluate: “Railway development in India provides an interesting instance of private enterprise at public risk.”


  1. “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst of an industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as ‘the catalyst of complete colonization.” – Examine.



  1. What do you mean by the commercialization of Indian agriculture? Discuss its results.


  1. To what extent did the process of commercialization of agriculture affect the rural scene in India?



  1. How do you account for the rise and growth of the Business enterprise in India during the first half of the 20th century?



Peasant and tribal uprising during the early nationalist era/Rise of Indian Nationalism

  1. The 1921 Moplah rebellion was “in essence an expression of long – standing agarian discontent which was intensified by the religious and ethnic identity.” Comment.


  1. Examine the economic and social factors which led to the rise of Indian nationalism in the second half of the nineteenth century.


  1. “The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society- a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all India plane and help develop long – term political developments.”


  1. “The Santhal hool began in July 1855, the core of the movement was economic, the hasic cause of the uprising was agrarian discontent.”


Indian National Congress-From foundation to moderate phase

  1. ‘The tragedy of Curzon lay in that, with such abundance of trained talent, he was denied the crowning qualities. He never an administrator of the first rank.’ Comment.


  1. Discuss ‘the safety valve’ theory. Does it satisfactorily explain the foundation of the Indian National Congress?


  1. To what extent was the emergence of the Congress in 1885 the culmination of process or political awakening that had its beginning in the 1870s?


  1. Analyse the social composition of the early Congress leadership.


Growth of Externism/Partition of Bengal/

Swadeshi Movement.

  1. “Indian after 1905 had new interests and objectives and compelled new lines of policy.”


  1. “Curzon’s partition of Bengal gave the unwitting initiative of events of magnitude and returned many years later of port with the cargo of freedom.” Comment.


  1. Trace the factors which led to a split in the Indian National congress in 1907. What was its impact on the curse of the nationalist movement?


Social Reform Movements in India

  1. “The contact of the new Indian middle class with the West proved to be a catalyst. The social and religious movements launched by Rammohan or Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar have to be understood in this context.” Elaborate.




Congress’ Karachi Resolution – 1931

(Economy programme)

  1. “At Karachi in 1931, the Congress defined what Swaraj would mean for the masses.” Comment.




Gandhi’s thought and methods of mass mobilisaton/ Role of Gandhi

  1. ‘The nationalist political movements for liberation such as the non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements and their leadership depended heavily on the peasantry.’ Comment.


  1. Gandhi restrained mass – movements yet he retained his popularity among the masses. How do you explain this paradox?


  1. “Gandhi’s mystique consisted of a union of original ideas with a remarkable flair for tactics and an uncanny insight in the mass mind.” Elucidate.


  1. “Gandhi restrained mass movements. yet he retained is popularity among the masses.” Comment.


  1. “Is moral law, the law of conscience, higher than the law of the state, which is oppressive?” (Mahatma Gandhi, 1922). Comment.


Khailafat – Non-Cooperation Movement

  1. Explain the circumstances leading to the alliance between the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements. Was it a politically wise step on the part of the congress?


Civil Disobedience Movement

  1. Show how the Civil Disobedience was market by much scattered potentially radical manifestations. Was the Karachi Congress an indication of certain basic weakness of the entire movement?


  1. Analyse the factors responsible for the Civil Disobedience movement (1930-31). How fat were its aims realised in the government of India Act of 1935?


1940 Satyagraha & Quit India Movement

  1. ‘The Quit India Movement was a spontaneous revolt of the people against British rule.’ Comment.


  1. ‘In the summer of 1942 Gandhi was in a strange and uniquely militant mood.’ Comment.


  1. Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution?


State People’s Movement

  1. Trace the course of the people’s movement in Indian States after 1937. How did the congress leadership react ot it?



Revolutionary Movement since 1905

  1. Examine the causes of the rise and progress of revolutionary movements in India from 1905 to 1931.


  1. Describe the changing nature of revolutionary activities in India between 1905-1946


Ideas of Jawaharlal Nehru/Left Wing the Congress

  1. Account for the rise and growth of leftism in the congress movement. What impact did it have on contemporary Indian politicals?


  1. Account for the emergence of the left-wing within the Congress. How far did it influence the protramme and Policy of the Congress?


The left (Socialists & Communists)

  1. Discuss the nature of the leadership and programme of the Congress Socialist Party.


  1. “The emergence of left-wing group in the congress radicalize the social and economic agenda.” Critically evaluate.


Subhash Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army

  1. “The ideology of Subhash Chandra Bose was a combination of nationalism, fascism and communism.” Comment.


Communalism: Muslim League & Hindu Mahasabha

  1. Trace the origin and growth of the Indian Muslim League.


  1. Critically evaluate: “The active participation of Aruna Asaf Ali in 1942 movement symbolized the role of women in India’s freedom struggle.”


  2. ‘Rabindranth Tagore’s nationalism was based on a Catholic internationalism.’ Comment.


  1. “There is no other instance in the history mankind of a poet and philosopher working such a miracle in shaping the destiny of his people.” (A Tribute to M. Iqbal)


  2. “It was in this almost unrecognizable form that the Ilbert Bill was finally enacted.. it was primarily a failure of the Viceroy.’ Comment.


  1. ‘Please remember, in granting separate electorates, we are sowing dragon’s teeth the harvest will be bitter.’ Comment.


  1. What kind of administrative change were introduced in India under the East India Company?


  1. The Diarchy provided by the Montford reforms “certainly created suspicion without and frictions within.” Comment.


  1. The Montague Declaration (20 August 1917) was observed more closely in the “realm of imperial relations” than anything else. Comment.


  1. Explain the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the constitutional changes of 1909, 1919 and 1935.


  1. ‘The object of the Act (Regulating) was good, but system that it established was imperfect.’ Comment.


  1. “Please remember, in granting separate electorates we are sowing the dragon’s teeth and the harvest will be better.” (Morley). Comment.


  1. “In terms of the administrative structure, the Government of India Act of 1858,… meant more continuation than changes.” Do you agree? Substantiate.


  1. “The Charter Act of 1833 rung down the curtain on the company’s trade and introduced a new concept of government in India.” Substantiate.




Congress Ministries, 1937-39

  1. ‘The developments during 1937-1939 greatly undermined the ability of the Indian National Congress to push through the agenda of national unity.” Comment.


The Pakstan Movement/Partition

  1. ‘Mountbattern’s task was, therefore, merely to work out details and effect the partition, demanded by the League and accepted by both British government and the Congress; and this the new Viceroy moved commandingly to perform. Comment.


  1. “To glorify the strenght of the Congress and deny that of the League is to be blind.” (P.C. joshi, 1945.) Comment.


  1. The Pakistan movement converted a cultural and religious entity of a people into a separatist political force. Elucidate.


  1. “Both freedom and partition were the work of Indian middle classes.” Comment.


  1. ‘We are therefore unable to advise the British government that the power which at present resides i British hands should be handed over to two entirely separate sovereign State’ Comment.


  1. “I felt that if we did not accept partition, India would be split into many bits and would be completely ruined.” Comment.


  1. Discuss as to why the congress accepted the partition of India in 1947.




         INDEPENDENCE  (1947-1964)

  1. “Having won political freedom, India had to win economic and cultural freedom” Comment.


  1. Jawarharlal Nehru was the architect of India’s policy of non-alignment. In the light of this statement discuss India’s relations with the two ‘Power Block’s between 1947-1964.


  1. Analyse Indian foreign polity on Non-alignment? between 1947 and 1964.


  1. “With great skill and masterful diplomacy and using both persuasion and pressure. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel succeeded in inter grating the hundreds of princely states with the Indian Union Discuss.


  1. “In exercising its exclusive power the Parliament additionally enacted the Untouchability (Offences) Act in 1955.” Comment.


  1. “Nehru’s temple of Modern India’ Consisted not only of steed and power plants. Irrigation dams, but included institutions of higher learning particularly in the scientific field.” Elaborate.


  1. Would you agree that India’s effort to pursue an independent foreign policy was a highlight of post – 1947 politics?


  1. “Nehru’s policy of Non-Alignment came to symbolize the struggle of India and other newly independent nations to retain and strengthen their independence from colonialism.”


  1. “Nehru favoured the policy of integrating the tribal people in Indian society, of making them an integral part of the Indian nation even while maintaining their distinct ndentity and culture.”

-Elaborate with special reference to Northeastern India.


Consolidation as a nation

  1. “The current practice of categorization of ‘Early Modern India’ is based on a shift from the old imperialist periodization of ‘Muslim India’- “British India’ to the more secularist one of ‘Medieval India’- ‘Modern India’, which puts Indian history in universalist chromological structure.”


Ecology and Environmental Policy in Post-

colonial India

  1. “The Chipko became famous as the first major environmental movement in post- colonial India and gave raise to the understanding that environmental issues are often women’s issues became they suffer most from its deterioration.” – Explain.



Renaaissance background (geographical discoveries etc.)

  1. ‘The sponsors of the overseas expansion of Europe were national monarchies.’ Comment.


  1. To what extent were the advances in scientific knowledge in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a product of the needs of a changing society?


  1. “The era of discovery and exploration was but another aspect of the Renaissance interest in the world and man.” Comment.


  1. One great effect of the geographical discoveries of the 15th century was “the growing belif that America, Asia and Africa were to be used extensively for the benefit of Europeans,” Comment.


  1. Portugal and Spain, the pioneers in world exploration, where also first in the race to conquer overseas countries. Comment.



  1. ‘His (Martin Luther’s) rebellions was essentially popular & national.’ Comment.


  1. Assess the intellectual awakening which occurred in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. How did it influence modern society and civilization.


  1. “The Renaissance was not political or religious movement. It was a state of mind.” Comment.


  1. “The Renaissance and the Reformation are the two springs of modern history, rival sources of the intellectual and moral freshening of modern life.” Comment.


  1. “Of all forms assumed by the Protestant Reformation, Calvinism has been the most far reaching in its scope and the most profound in its influence.” Comment.


  1. ‘The Renaissance, was the discovery of the world and of man.’ Comment.


  1. “The Renaissance scholars laid the eggs which Luther, the father of the Reformation, later on hatched,” Discuss.


Major ideas of enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau

  1. ‘Rousseau’s political philosophy contains the seeds of Socialism, Absolutism and Democracy.’ Comment.


  1. “The Enlightenment represented alternative approaches to modernity, alternative habits of mind and heart, of conscience and sensibility.” Discuss.


  1. “The promptings of the heart are more to be trusted than the logic of the mind.” – Rousseau. Critically evaluate.


  1. “The despotic rulers of Europe were influences by the philosophy of Enlightenment and began to follow a benevolent policy towards their subject.”


Rise of Soclalist ideas (to Marx)

  1. ‘Marxian communism is primarily the offspring of German Hegelianism and French Socialism Comment.


  1. “France was more fertile than Britain in producing new Socialist theories and movements, though they more less concrete results in France than the Britain”. Comment.



European States system

  1. From the Thirty Years War finally emerged the modern state system of Europe. Do you agree?


American Revolution & the Constitution

  1. Examine the issues involved in the American Civil War. Was it contest between two separate nations?


  1. The American Revolution “was a natural and even expected event in the history of colonial people who had come of age” Comment.


  1. The American War of Independence “deprived Great Britain of one empire, but it strengthened the foundations of another.”


  1. ‘What were the factors that worked in the drafting of the American Constitution? Do you agree with Beard’s view of the constitution being an Economic Document?


  1. “No taxation without representation”. Comment.


  1. How far is it correct to say that every feature of American constitution was ultimately of English origin?


  1. “The American Revolution was essentially an economic conflict between American capitalism and British mercantilism.”


French Revolution and after math, 1789-1815

  1. ‘French political writers of the eighteenth century were influenced by Locked and also by the curios contrasts which they perceived between the government of his country and their own.’ Comment.


  1. ‘Napoleon was the child of the Revolution, but in many ways he reversed the aims and principles of the movement from which he sprang.’ Comment.


  1. ‘The scale, splendour and organized power of the monarchy of Louis XIV was something new in Europe.’ Comment.


  1. The French Revolution (1789) sought to remove both “the religious and secular props of the existing social ordeer.” Elucidate.


  1. “If monarchical misrule ignited the French revolution, lofty ideas both inspired and sustained it.” Comment.


  1. To some extent, the American War of Independence inspired the French Revolution Comment.


  1. How did Napolean Bonaparte heal the wounds of France inflicted by the Revolution and corrected the errors perpetrated by its leaders?


  1. ‘The Napoleonic Empire was doomed because of its inherent and self-defeating contradictions Elucidate.


  1. ‘If monarchical misrule ignited the French Revolution, lofty ideas both inspired and sustained it.’ Comment.


  1. ‘The French Revolution attacked privileges and not property’. Comment.


  1. ‘Napoleon was the child of the Revolution but in many ways he reversed the aims and principles of the movement from which he sprang…’ Comment.


  1. ‘The writings of the philosophers had a tremendous influence on the minds of the people and created a revolutionary awakening in their minds and formed the intellectual creed of the French Revolution.’ Comment.


  1. “No event as encompassing as the French revolution occurs in an intellectual vacuum.”


  1. How did Napoleon Bonaparte fuse the old France with the new?


  1. Critically evaluate: ”..he (Voltaire) was living in the Age of Enlightenment… The age itself was not enlightened.” – E. Kant.


  1. To what extend did Napoleon’s economic war with England become his undoing?


  1. “The connection between the philosophers’ ideas and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) is some what remote and indirect.”


British Democracy 1815-1850

  1. “The Bill of Rights (1688) set the seal on Parliamentary supremacy in England.” Comment.


  1. Review the background of the Chartist Movement. Despite its failure how had their demands been met in the succeeding years?


  1. ‘Though reform was inevitable, the Act (18320 by which it was accomplished was open to grave criticism. Comment.


  1. “The roots of Chartism and party political and partly economic.” Comment.




English Industrial Revolution/Mercantilism

  1. “Protestantism contributed substantially to the rise of capitalism.” Comment.


  1. The Industrial Revolution “Changed England in character & culture.” Comment.


  1. The Industrial Revolution brought about great changes in the social and economic life of Europe Explain.


  1. “The capitalism which gave the European empires their apparent solidarity and permanence also hastened their down fall.” Comment.


  1. What was the extent of industrialization in western Europe by the end of the nineteenth century?


  1. “Whoever says Industrial Revolutions, says cotton.” Comment.


  1. “The process of industrialization in some other countries of Europe was different from that in England.”




Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

  1. “Asian Nationalism is just a product of Western impact on the Asian intelligentsia in the last decades of the nineteenth century.’ Comment.


  1. “The Peace of Westphalia ended the reign of theology over the European mind and left the road obstructed but passable for the tentative of reason.” Comment.


  1. Lord Beaconsfield after his return from the congress of Berlin (1878) boasted: “I have brought peace with honour.” Comment.


  1. “The Crimean War was the most uneless war ever waged.” Comment.


Nationalism: state-building in Germany & Italy

  1. What were the obstacles to Italian unification till 1852? How and with what methods was the unification of Italy achieved?


  1. At the end of the battle of Sedan (1870). “Europe lost a mistress and gained a master.” Comment.


  1. The unification of Italy and that of Germany constituted a contrast in respect of the ways they wre affected and the impact they left on later international politicals. Elucidate.


  1. “The unification of Italy completed… the destruction of the European order.” Comment.


  1. Isolation of France constituted the keystone of Bismarck’s foreign policy. Elucidate.


  1. The political unification of Germany was accomplished solely by Bismarck. Comment.


  1. “Bismarch created a new Germany with the policy of ‘blood and iron’. Comment


  1. “Napoleon kindled the national sentiment, but German unity was achieved by Bismarck.”


  1. ‘Bismarck united Germany not by majority of votes and speeches but by a policy of “blood and iron.” In the light of this statement assess the contribution of Bismarck to the unification of Germany.


  1. ‘To Bismarck the conclusion of the Treaty of May 20, 1882, was the culmination of this system.’ Comment.


  1. ‘They have stopped me from making Italy by diplomacy from the North, I will make it by revolution from the South.’ Comment.


  1. How did Napolean fuse the France of the ancien regine with the France of the post-revolutionary era?


  1. Was German unification achieved more by ‘coal and iron’ than by ‘blood and iron’?



  2. “The perpetuation of the economic malaise was the main cause of the political instability of Europe during the next two decades (1919-39).” Explain.


  1. The Great Depression (1929-34) was “attended by momentous consequences i the economic as well as in the political sphere.” Comment.


  1. President Frankling Rooservelt’s New Deal “had the wit to start the political economy in a fresh, more promising direction.” Do you agree?


  1. ‘The Great Depression (1929-34) was attended by momentous consequences in the economic as well as in the political sphere.” Comment.




         ARAB WORLD

  1. ‘Nominally the new Turkey was republican and democratic.’ Comment.


  1. Arab Nationalism and Oil-these were the principal factors complicating the relations of the West Asian countries with the outside world Do you agree?


  1. “The countries in the Middle East became, after 1919, the scene of constant effervescence and some striking changes.” Comment.


  1. Turkish renaissance guided by Kemal Pasha revolutionised the Turkish life at many levels. Amplify.


  1. Discuss the aims of the establishment of the Arab league and assess it role in safeguarding the interests of the Arab nations.


  1. “Arab nationalism and oil-there were the principal factors in complicating the relations of middle eastern countries with the out side world.” Comment.


  1. “The Eastern Question has always been an international questions.” Elucidate.


  1. “By 1914, the sick man of Europe was no longer just Turkey: It was Europe was itself.” Explain.


  1. “The Arab nationalism had a peculiar character. It stood for national independence for separate Arab states as well as for the unity of all Arabs irrespective of their state boundaries. – Examine.



Exploitation of New World; types of empire- Latin America, South Africa, Indonesia, Australia; Imperialism & free trade.

  1. Trace the stages in the partition of Africa after 1870. How did it affect international relations?


  1. The simultaneous expansion of European powers overseas during the last quarter of the 19th century brought them into frequent collisions at remote points all over Africa and Asia.” Comment.


  1. Trace the various states of European imperialism in Africa in the nineteenth century.


  1. “Colonies are like fruits which cling to the tree only till they ripen.” Comment.


  1. “New imperialism was nationalistic, not an economic phenomena.” Comment.


  1. “In all the long annals of Imperialism, the partition of Africa is a remarkable freak.” Comment.


  1. Discuss the emergence of neo-imperialism in the late nineteenth century.


  1. What do you understand by Imperialism? State briefly its unique features in the case of Africa.



  1. CHINA (1842-1911) & JAPAN


China – 1842-1911

  1. ‘The Heavenly Land system was significant in that it greatly expanded the idea of equalizing rich and poor and land owing which the peasant wars had put forward i the past.’ Comment.


  1. Trace the distinct phases of the Sino-Japanese War. Assess its political, economic and cultural impact on China, both occupied and free.’


  1. Divided into spheres of influence by foreign powers, China in the 19th century presented a sorry spectacle. How did China react to it?


  1. To what extent did the Western power bring China under their domination without annexation?





19th century European Revolution

  1. Show how the Spanish Civil War was a prelude to World War II.


  1. ‘For a tired and timid generation Metternich was the necessary man.’ Comment.


  1. Give reasons for the origin of the Renaissance in Italy.


  1. “Most of the European Revolutions of 1848 were nationalist as well as popular insurrections against foreign rule and repressive policy of Metternich.” Comment.


The Russian Revolution (1917-1921)

  1. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a single revolution which developed two phases. Elucidate.


  1. In Russia, Lenin was “the father of socialism, organiser of the revolution and the founder of the new Russian society.” Examine the statement.


  1. “Stalinist Russia was a despotic regime.” Critically examine the view.


  1. Examine the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and indicate its significance in world history.


  1. ‘The Russian Revolution (1917) was an economic explosion hastened by the stupidities of the autocratic Government. Comment.


  1. Account for the overthrow of the Tsarist regime in Russia.


  1. “The impact of the French Revolution (1789) was initially confined of Europe, but, that of the Russian Revolution (1917) was global.” – Critically review.


Fascist Counter-Revolution, Itlay&Germany

  1. ‘Comparison of the fascist regime in Italy with the National Socialist regime of Germany is almost inevitable, the similarities are obvious, but there is one point of difference which is worth mentioning.’ Comment.


  1. Discuss the view that Louis XIV of France was a great king-the grand monarch.’


  1. “There was an element of system in Hitler’s foreign policy… His outlook was continental.” Comment.


  1. “Corporate Sate” was Mussolini’s answer to the sociopolitical problems of his country. Elucidate.


  1. ‘The roots of the rise of Fascism lay in Peace Treaties.’


  1. What were the weaknesses and difficulties of the Weimer Republic? how did Hitler succeed in establishing his dictatorship?


  1. Discuss the main characteristics of Fascism.


China – 1911-1949, The Chinese

Revolution – 1949

  1. Show how the presence of a weak and helpless China next door brought about the rise of militarism and collapse of democracy in Japan.


  1. With the proclamation in Nanking of a Chinese Republic With Sun-Yat-Sen as the President in 1911, “the old China wilted rapidly.”Comment.


  1. Examine the circumstances in China in the years 1945-49. What did the United States do to resolve the conflict between the Nationalists and resolve Communists there?


  1. Discuss the circumstances leading to the Chinese Revolution of 1949 and analyse its significance.


  1. Critically analyse the causes and results of the Chinese Revolution of 1949.


  1. “The announcement of creation of people’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 by Mao Zedong ended the civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party (KMT).” Elaborate.



  1. Trace the growth of militarism in Japan in the inter-war years. What international reaction did it provoke?




Ist and 2nd World War as Total Wars

  1. “The War’s (First World War’s) most permanent contribution to the spirit of the post-War years was disillusion.” Comment.


  1. “In the long run, the Locarno Treaty (December 1925) was destructive both of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant.” Comment.


  1. “Any single explanation for the outbreak of the First World War is likely to be too simple Amalgam of factors intellectual, social, economic as well as political and diplomatic contributed to this horrifying conflict of monumental proportions.” Explain.


Treaty of Versailles

  1. ‘The Treaty of Versailles was merely an armistice for twenty years.’ Comment.


  1. Analyse the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 and examine the validity of Germany’s objections to the treaty.


  1. ‘There was not only a difference of principles at Paris (Peace Conference) but a clash of personalities.’ Comment.


  1. ‘The most important single factor.. in the years following 1919 was the French demand for security. Comment.


  1. “Treaty of Versailles contained the seeds of future conflict.” Comment.


  1. “After World War II, the strategy of the West towards Soviet bloc crystallized as a policy of containment.” Comment.


  1. “The peace of Versailles lacked moral validity from the start.” Critically evaluate.


World War II

  1. “Until December 1941 the battlefield of the Second World War was exclusively European and Atlantic, thereafter it became also Asiatic and Pacific.”


  1. “Hitler did not really want a world war. His intention was only a short war with Poland.” (A.J.P. Taylor) Comment.


  1. How did the policy of appeasement escalate the problem of Nazi aggrandizement?


World during and after World War II

  1. One of the most important impacts of the Second world war was the “division of Europe.” eastern and western.


  1. Trace the rise and growth of the New European Society in the inter-was period.


  1. In the post-second World War scenario friends in war did not remain friends in peace. Examine the truth of this view in the period of your study.


  1. “One of the most important consequences of the Second World War was ‘division of Europe’. eastern & western.” Comment.


  1. “A clever conqueror will always impose his demands on the conquered by installments” Comment.


  1. “Europe faced peace in 1945 politically disorganized and economically crippled.” Elaborate.




Emergence of Two Blocs/Cold War

  1. Critically examine the various dimensions and phases of the cold war between 1947 and 1962.


  1. Account for the factors that brought about the end of the cold War.


  1. “The collapse of Berlin Wall in 1989 brought new ideas of co-operation in Europe.” Critically evaluate.


Emergence of Third Wordl & Non-Alignment

  1. Explain the circumstances leading to the emergence of third World and analyse its impact on world affairs.


  1. Would you agree that the Non-Aligned Movement played a crucial role in promoting a climate of peace?


League of Nations/UN

  1. ‘Thus the League sought to achieve the profoundest of all psychological revolutions – to transform the war mentality of man into a peace mentality.’ Comment.


  1. .the Manchurian crisis decided the fate of the League of Nations.’ Comment.


  1. “The Communist International and the League of Nations both announced the end of the Balance of Power.” Comment.


  1. ‘The Security Council is the heart of the United Nations.’


  1. Examine the peace-keeping efforts of the United Nations Organization.





  1. Give a brief account of the struggle against ‘Apartheid’ in South Africa.


South – Vietnam, Indonesia

  1. Why did Vietnam go through thirty years of war after the second world war?


  1. Critically examine the Dutch colonial policy in Indonesia.


De-colonization & Undeerdevelopment Break up of colonial Empires: British, French, Dutch.

  1. ‘The decolonization led to the break-up of Empires.’ Comment.




Post War Foundation: NATO and European 


1,      The Brussels Treaty of 17 march, 1948 paved the way for the formation of NATO.’


  1. “NATO in many ways symbolized the key role that the United States had come to play in Europe.’ Comment.





Collapse of Soviet Communism and related development

  1. Discuss the main factors leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union.


  1. Analyse the factors leading to the end of the Cold Ward and account for the U.S. ascendancy in the


  1. Analyse the factors for the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union during 1985-1991.


  1. “By the 1980s the Communist system of the Soviet Union was incapable of maintaining the country’s role as a Superpower.” Explain this statement.


  1. Assess the significance of the political developments that took place in Eastern Europe during 1989-2001.


  1. Critically evaluate: The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s master.” Gorbachev.


  1. Examine the challenges confronted by the proponents of European unity after the collapse of Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe.


  1. “With the Cold War over and the diplomacy has undergone a metamorphosis.”



  1. Critically evaluate: “All long marches begin with small steps.”


  1. Explain now American imperialism in Philippines differed with European imperialism in Indonesia and indo-China.