Socialogy-old

The initial Sociology notes from the class form the foundation of your sociology preparation. Sociology as a subject demands devotion and writing practice.

What we would advise you all is to do extensive writing practice and solve at least three to four previous year papers. Whenever a question is asked, don’t directly jump on it. Create a room by maneuvering & relating with current affairs, especially in Paper 2. In Paper1, thinkers are as important as the other part. Prepare short notes which can be done within an hour or so. Try to compile the thinkers in Sociology all within 15 pages, so that you could revise them multiple times

Sociology: A safer optional subject

No special knowledge or academic background is required for the preparation of Sociology as an optional subject. candidates without any special skill in Sociology have obtained high scores. The basic requirement is the understanding of different elements of Sociology in right direction and making their use in a well-arranged way. Sociology is made up of different elements which are inter-related with each other in one or other way. How do we take up or understand these inter-relations, all depends on our personal ability. We can develop this ability with the help of standard books and notes but can sharpen it only under appropriate guidance,

Sociology 1st paper is commonly known as Thinker’s paper. There are six thinkers namely Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, R.K. Merton and Mead mentioned herein. So, the candidates are required to focus heavily on thinkers and that almost completes the 1st paper.

Thinkers’ part is comprising only 10 – 15 percent of the total syllabus of first paper but from the examination point of view, its corresponding weightage is almost 70 percent. In this way 90 percent of the syllabus covers only 30 percent of questions. You should remember this while preparing sociology.

Advantages of Sociology

Every optional has its own merits and demerits. It is the wiseness of the student to review these advantages and disadvantages before chosing the optional. here we are giving advantages of sociology.

  • 1. In General studies – paper-1 questions varying from 20 marks to 50 marks are asked from social problems, do not require any special effort to deal with if you have sociology as your optional. The preparation of sociology will complete this portion. Few of the topics covered include demography; human resources and related issues; behavioural and social issues; social welfare problems, such as child labour, gender equality, adult literacy, rehabilitation of the handicapped and other deprived segments of the society, drug abuse, public health, corruption in public life, communal harmony etc.
  • 2. In Essay paper, there are two to four topics directly based on social problems, which would be arranged in a very systematic and logical manner. Sociology always remains you in a comfort zone in making a better presentation and obtaining good marks.
  • 3. In Interview, most of the current-based and situation-based questions have direct link with social problems. A Sociology optional will make the student to get command over those social problems..

Role of Case studies in Sociology

Sociology paper-2 is primarly a practical paper. The concepts are necessirly to be proved with the help of solid reasons. The reasons are found in the form of case studies, which make your answers authentically powerful, if used appropriately. Altogether our analysis matching with these case studies put the answer at its perfection.

Case studies and analysis are highly inter-related and are complementary to each other. One’s existence is incomplete and worthless without the other.

Some Myths about case studies

Myth : Writing more and more case studies give marks

Truth: This kind of thinking is completely baseless and wrong. Case studies are no doubt very essential but be careful, each case study has the ability to render a big assertion When we write the answer in limited words and time constraint, we can not take the support of too many studies. If we write only case study without analyzing them then our answer will appear as incomplete and unorganized.

Myth : The nature of case studies is not as important as their number.

Truth:The nature of case studies is very important. Along with some old studies, you must try to give some new studies. Most of the studies have been conducted in 60s and 70s. But today we live in the ultra modern age which keeps changing drastically. Also the examiners may feel bored finding same case studies in everyone’s answer-sheets.

So, as a student, you should update yourself with newer case studies.

Approach to sociology optional papers is quite different. Try to study the thinkers part in both papers thouroughly and get a clarity on all the sociological concepts. While writing sociology answers, try to keep 3 things in mind. 1. Thinkers and their ideas, 2. coherent arrangement and expression, and 3. using contemporary topics in answers. Thinkers should be used in all answers. Arrangement of answers means that the contents are to be framed in a definite structure and the structure must be exposed indirectly through the flow of writing with interlinking of sub topics and paragraphs explaining the scope and meaning.

One needs to give the powerful and logical conclusion which is the consequence of everything discussed earlier. Answer must be balanced and free from prejudice. Well, Sociology is one optional which is famous and many aspirants opt for it. To score good in socio one should have different appraoch in selecting quality material and coaching.

The key to great performance in any examination is revision which is possible only through perfect NOTES. So, you should be able to prepare short notes for the entire syllabus atleast a month before the mains. Ensure that the notes is concise, complete, crisp and clear (4C). This will enable you to do multiple last time revisions and will ensure that you are comfortable with all the syllabus, you can go to the exam hall with confidence and get good scores.

Sociology optional strategy and studyplan

The common reasons for selecting Sociology as an optional are:

  • 1. Short Syllabus
  • 2. High scoring, provided proper strategy is followed, of which answer writing practice is most important.
  • 3. Every body is well aware of the subject matter of sociology i.e. society, its structural aspects, various institutions, functional aspects, social change. Sociology is a scientific endeavour to study above aspects. So, if properly interrelated it is a very interesting subject.
  • 4. Students belonging to any academic background,( particularly science background) can easily cover sociology in short time.
  • 5. Also helps in General Studies and Essay paper.

Many people, especially peers, may suggest you to refer multiple books to understand the topics in the syllabus. You should try to limit the sources while studying and make sure you read them thourougly. There is a small trick to do this. The trick is that you study some basic stuff, let’s call it ‘Primary’. The primary material should be IGNOU,NCERT books, some fundamental books like Harlemboss for paper 1 and Y.Singh and R.Ahuja books for paper 2. Also you should buy the ‘Secondary’ material for reference. But, the secondary material should be used only to refer some difficult topics and for adding content to the primary.

Adding content to the primary means extracting some thinker’s views, case studies etc. Once you have read the primary material, you should search and add content from secondary material. You can also simply look for any new information, cases and books and add it to your primary material or notes.

Following this will help in writing concise answers with diversified content.

HOW TO COVER UP SYLLABUS

1. Break the syllabus into parts: Chapters – Topics – Sub-topics. Now refer to your booklist. One book/source will not have all the topics and even if they are present it may not be exhaustive. So, out of the sources mentioned, you can figure out which one is good for a particular topic , and read from it .Don’t try to read one topic from multiple resources if you are able to get clarity after reading from one source, until and unless there is some value addition.

2. Please refer to last year questions topic wise. They will help in guiding you what to cover from a topic. Also try to answer them once the chapter is over to check if you are able to tackle them. This is the simplest way to check if you are on the right track.

3.In the initial stages it will be very difficult to understand sociology especially if you do not have a background. So be patient. Initially focus on understanding thinkers as they are the base of sociology. Once you get clarity on thinkers, sociology will not be difficult.

4. For the better understanding of the topics in the sociology will require 2-3 readings. Once you are able to grasp the concepts, it is better to consolidate and make notes.

5. Making notes is very important since you are trying to collate information from multiple sources at one place. It will always help you in revising the topics.

Segregating the whole syllabus

The best part of Sociology is the interpreting the two papers. One should not study the two papers exclusively but together in an intertwined fashion. The entire syllabus is to be studied in the same passion so that, the subject takes less time and effort to master and helps in doing well in the exam. To have control on the subject like sociology, the whole syllabus should be categorized into 8 slots. These slots are independent of paper 1 and 2 and interpret the common topics in them.

Slot 1- INDEPENEDENT TOPICS:

(This contains independent topics which are not much interconnected with other areas and can be studied separately as a slot.)

PAPER-1

1. Sociology – The Discipline:

  • (a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
  • (b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
  • (c) Sociology and common sense.

2. Sociology as Science:

  • (a) Science, scientific method and critique.
  • (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
  • (c) Positivism and its critique.
  • (d) Fact value and objectivity.
  • (e) Non- positivist methodologies.

3. Research Methods and Analysis:

  • (a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • (b) Techniques of data collection.
  • (c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

PAPER-2

A. Introducing Indian Society:

(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:

  • (a) Indology (GS. Ghurye).
  • (b) Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
  • (c) Marxist sociology (A R Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

  • (a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
  • (b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
  • (c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
  • (d) Social reforms

(iii) Tribal communities in India:

  • (a) Definitional problems.
  • (b) Geographical spread.
  • (c) Colonial policies and tribes.
  • (d) Issues of integration and autonomy.

(vi)Population Dynamics:

  • (a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
  • (b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
  • (c) Population policy and family planning.
  • (d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

Slot 7- POLITICS, WESTERN AND INDIAN:

PAPER-1

7. Politics and Society:

  • (a) Sociological theories of power
  • (b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
  • (c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
  • (d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

PAPER-2

(iv) Politics and Society:

  • (a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
  • (b) Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
  • (c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
  • (d) Secularization

Slot 2- THINKERS:

PAPER-1

4. Sociological Thinkers:

  • (a) Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
  • (b) Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
  • (c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
  • (d) Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
  • (e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups
  • (f) Mead – Self and identity.

Slot 3- STRATIFICATION, CASTE AND CLASS:

PAPER-1

5. Stratification and Mobility:

  • (a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation
  • (b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
  • (c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
  • (d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

PAPER-2

(ii) Caste System:

  • (a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
  • (b) Features of caste system.
  • (c) Untouchability – forms and perspectives.

(iv) Social Classes in India:

  • (a) Agrarian class structure.
  • (b) Industrial class structure.
  • (c) Middle classes in India.

Slot 4-WORK, ECONOMIC LIFE, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY:

PAPER-1

6. Works and Economic Life:

  • (a) Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
  • (b) Formal and informal organization of work.
  • (c) Labour and society.

PAPER-2

(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

  • (a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
  • (b) Green revolution and social change.
  • (c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
  • (d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

  • (a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
  • (b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
  • (c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
  • (d) Informal sector, child labour.
  • (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

Slot 9- FAMILY, KINSHIP, MARRIAGE:

PAPER-1

9. Systems of Kinship:

  • (a) Family, household, marriage.
  • (b) Types and forms of family.
  • (c) Lineage and descent.
  • (d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
  • (e) Contemporary trends.

PAPER-2

(v) Systems of Kinship in India:

  • (a) Lineage and descent in India.
  • (b) Types of kinship systems.
  • (c) Family and marriage in India.
  • (d) Household dimensions of the family.
  • (e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.

Slot 8- RELIGION, WESTERN AND INDIAN:

PAPER-1

8. Religion and Society:

  • (a) Sociological theories of religion.
  • (b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
  • (c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

PAPER-2

(vi) Religion and Society:

  • (a) Religious communities in India.
  • (b) Problems of religious minorities.

Slot 10- SOCIAL CHANGE:

PAPER-1

10. Social Change in Modern Society:

  • (a) Sociological theories of social change.
  • (b) Development and dependency.
  • (c) Agents of social change.
  • (d) Education and social change.
  • (e) Science, technology and social change.

PAPER-2

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

  • (a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
  • (b) Constitution, law and social change.
  • (c) Education and social change.

(v) Social Movements in Modern India:

  • (a) Peasants and farmers movements.
  • (b) Women’s movement.
  • (c) Backward classes & Dalit movement.
  • (d) Environmental movements.
  • (e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

  • (a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
  • (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
  • (c) Violence against women.
  • (d) Caste conflicts.
  • (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
  • (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.

Start preparing Paper 1 with Michael Haralambos to clear your basics and follow NCERT on sociology along with it. Then move to IGNOU notes of BA and MA, write down every concept and important topics. This will improve your writing habit and also helps in memorizing the basics. Society developed from past to present in various eras is defined differently from different authors but the following are very important:

1) August Comte (Father of Socio)

2) Karl Marx (Pioneer of Communism )

3) Max Weber (Bureaucracy and Capitalism )

4) Emile Durkheim (Religion and Suicide)

5) Herbert Spencer (Also known as Darwin's Bulldog, Founder of relationship between Physical Sciences and Sociology)

There are many authors but, above are the forefathers and pillars on which sociology stands.

Sociology is relatively newly developed branch of Arts and Humanities subject and it is very interesting for the beginners.

Second paper includes thinkers from Indian background and after effects of Sociology on India. They try to analyze Indian society from sociological point of view, in which so many Indian and western sociologists have contributed very well.

As you have no background in socio , taking classes in socio will indeed be helpful. But if you don’t want to join classes there are videos on youtube uploaded by cec-ugc in which lectures are given by Professors of Delhi University and JNU .

Although these lectures are not specifically designed for UPSC, they will help you a lot. Also get in touch with a senior who has scoiology as an optional and seek guidance.

Part 1 of Sociology is more theoretical and thus you cannot add much from the current affairs.

1. Sociology - The Discipline:

With regard to European modernity, rule is – intellectual change leds to institutional change that will led to technological change. This will automatically give answer to any question on European modernity

Secondly, relation with various fields is very simple and there is always harmonious relation between sociology and other sciences. And consider all other fields as static in your conclusion and how they are taking sociological methods to put dynamism in their field.

Sociology and common sense is nothing but the debate between positivist and critical or non positivist.

2. Sociology as Science:

There are mainly three methodologies: Positivist, Non- positivist and Critical. The former emphasizes on scientific methods : fact, objectivity; Later on intellectual method through the application of mind which can never be measured (subjectivity), while non positivist refer to facts collected and applying their mind to come to conclusion (dynamic, values, interpretation).

3. Research Methods and Analysis

Methods can be read from Haralambos

4. Sociological Thinkers:

Give extra time to understand rather than cramming so that you need not put same efforts next time. Thinkers are most important and understand their theories thoroughly

5. Stratification and Mobility:

No need for studying this if one has already done the theories. One can use Marx, Weber, Parson, Kate Millet, Srinivas, Louie Dumont and Beteille.

6. Works and Economic Life:

Online resources are the suitable material for this chapter.

7. Politics and Society:

Haralambos chapter on power is best for this.

8. Religion and Society:

Haralambos

Approach on theories:

  • 1. Evolutionary
  • 2. Functional form of religion (Parson)
  • 3. Marxist
  • 4. Symbolic
  • 5. Functional and dysfunctional

9. Systems of Kinship:

Donot refer much on kinship. Only try to read particular topics.

10. Social Change in Modern Society:

In paper 1, maintain flow as functional -> Marxist -> interpretative (hermeneutic) -> critical -> structural functionalist -> phenomenology

Part 2 of sociology comprises of sociology of India. There are various dimensions you can add based on current realities in our society.

This chapter is mainly about change. There are some theories which can be understood easily.

  1. Whatever you write, always remember that there is nothing wrong in that (except theories). Therefore do not worry about the criticality of your answer
  2. Try to put some dynamism in the answer. Never relate to the specific scholars. Add some reports (not necessarily data) or findings.
  3. Write the exact nature of social issues and don’t create a rosy picture. But yes, try to give balanced answer in the end.
  4. Always follow phenomenological approach.
  5. Always take the different opinions expressed in the editorials of newspapers or some opinion of our political leaders to show chauvinism with regard to female issues.
  6. Always interpret things from multi dimensional perspective.

PAPER-1

  1. Upendra Class Notes
  2. Aditya Mongra Printed Notes– Available on his Fb – Page(https://www.facebook.com/groups/838734936170059/)
  3. Vikash Ranjan Book ( Fundamentals of sociology)
  4. Haralambos(small one) – Also called Haralambos and Heald.
  5. Haralambos(new one) – Only initial chapter 2,3 need new one exclusively.
  6. IGNOU BA material
  7. Ritzer –
  8. NCERT 11th to 12th Std. Sociology Book
  9. Y. Singh – Social tradition in India

For each chapter two to three books or sources are required as each chapter has many topics and one particular source won’t cover all the topics or even if covered it may not be very good. So,out of the sources mentioned you can figure out which one explains which topic in best way and read from it .Don’t try to read one topic from multiple resources until they have something extra or you lack clarity. Other reason for telling more resources is that you might not have all the resources and you can refer to the ones which are available.

Topics General List Additional Source for Reference
1. Sociology – The Discipline:

(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.

(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.

(c) Sociology and common sense.

Fundamentals of sociology IGNOU BA
2. Sociology as Science:

(a) Science, scientific method and critique.

(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.

(c) Positivism and its critique.

(d) Fact value and objectivity.

(e) Non- positivist methodologies.

Aditya Mongra Notes
Aditya Mongra Notes
Aditya Mongra Notes
Aditya Mongra Notes
Aditya Mongra Notes
3. Research Methods and Analysis:
(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.(b) Techniques of data collection.(c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
Haralambos and Holborn(new)* / Fundamantals of sociology Aditya Mongra Notes
Aditya Mongra Notes
Aditya Mongra Notes
4. Sociological Thinkers:
(a) Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.(b) Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.(c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.(d) Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.(e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.(f) Mead – Self and identity.
Upendra Class Notes + Ritzer and Fundamentals of sociology ( if you missed something). If you find ritzer difficult than Ignou is a good alternative. IGNOU BAIGNOU BA

IGNOU BA

IGNOU BA

IGNOU BA

Aditya Mongra Notes

5. Stratification and Mobility:
(a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.(b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.(c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.(d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
Haralambos (small) + Fundamentals of sociology /Upendra Notes Aditya Mongra NotesHaralambos mainly

Aditya Mongra Notes / IGNOU

Aditya Mongra Notes

6. Works and Economic Life:

(a) Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.

(b) Formal and informal organization of work.

(c) Labour and society.

Fundamentals of sociology
7. Politics and Society:

(a) Sociological theories of power.

(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.

(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.

(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

Haralambos (small) + Fundamentals of sociology /Upendra NotesHaralambos(small one)+ Upendra Notes

Fundamentals of sociology+ Upendra Notes

Fundamentals of sociology + Upendra Notes

Aditya Mongra Notes

Aditya Mongra Notes

8. Religion and Society:

(a) Sociological theories of religion.

(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.

(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

Haralambos (small one)some part haralambos + Fundamentals of sociology

secularisation in haralambos(small one) + fundamentals of sociology

Aditya Mongra Notes
9. Systems of Kinship:

(a) Family, household, marriage.

(b) Types and forms of family.

(c) Lineage and descent.

(d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.

(e) Contemporary trends.

Upendra Notes + Fundamamentals of sociology + Haralambos(selectively) Aditya Mongra NotesAditya Mongra Notes

Aditya Mongra Notes

Aditya Mongra Notes

Aditya Mongra Notes

10. Social Change in Modern Society:

(a) Sociological theories of social change.

(b) Development and dependency.

(c) Agents of social change.

(d) Education and social change.

(e) Science, technology and social change.

Upendra Notes + Fundamamentals of sociology + Haralambos(selectively) Sindhuri Mam notes
Haralambos (small one)

PAPER-II

  1. Mahapatra Notes
  2. Sindhuri Mam Notes
  3. Applied Sociology (Vikash Ranjan)
  4. IGNOU MA material
  5. Aditya Mongra Notes – Fb Page (https://www.facebook.com/groups/838734936170059/)
  6. Also read any Newspaper, EPW, Yojana periodically for case studies and contemporary examples
  7. In addition to this , read Veena Das Essays, Ram Ahuja, B.K Nagla, Nadeem Hussain
P.S – Paper 2 is very confusing; you will need to refer to many resources. You may have your own resource list. Please follow it. For topics you don’t find a resource, you can take a look here. But follow your own strategy, in sync with your coaching/self-preparation.
Topics General List Additional Source for Reference
A. Introducing Indian Society: (i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:

(a) Indology (GS. Ghurye).

(b) Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).

(c) Marxist sociology (A R Desai).

Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes Applied Sociology
(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society:

(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.

(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.

(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.

(d) Social reforms.

Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes Applied Sociology
B. Social Structure: (i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.(b) Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes IGNOU MA* /Applied Sociology
(ii) Caste System:
(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.(b) Features of caste system.(c) Untouchability – forms and perspectives.
Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes + IGNOU MA Applied Sociology
(iii) Tribal communities in India:

(a) Definitional problems.

(b) Geographical spread.

(c) Colonial policies and tribes.

(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.

Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes + IGNOU MA Applied Sociology
(iv) Social Classes in India:

(a) Agrarian class structure.

(b) Industrial class structure.

(c) Middle classes in India.

Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes + IGNOU Applied Sociology
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:

(a) Lineage and descent in India.

(b) Types of kinship systems.

(c) Family and marriage in India.

(d) Household dimensions of the family.

(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.

Mahapatra Sir Notes + Sindhuri Mam Notes + IGNOU MA Applied Sociology
(vi) Religion and Society:

(a) Religious communities in India.

(b) Problems of religious minorities.

IGNOU (selectively) + Applied Sociology
C. Social Changes in India: (i) Visions of Social Change in India:

(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.

(b) Constitution, law and social change.

(c) Education and social change.

Mahapatra Notes +Applied Sociology + IGNOU MA Sindhuri Mam Notes
(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.

(b) Green revolution and social change.

(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .

(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.

Mahapatra Notes + Sindhuri Mam+ IGNOU MA Applied Sociology
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.

(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.

(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.

(d) Informal sector, child labour.

(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

IGNOU MA + Mahapatra + Sindhuri Mam Applied Sociology
(iv) Politics and Society:

(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.

(b) Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.

(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.

(d) Secularization

Mainly in sync with Paper-1 Applied Sociology
(v) Social Movements in Modern India:

(a) Peasants and farmers movements.

(b) Women’s movement.

(c) Backward classes & Dalit movement.

(d) Environmental movements.

(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

Mahapatra + Sindhuri Mam + Aditya Mongra/Praveen sir Notes Applied Sociology
(vi) Population Dynamics:

(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.

(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.

(c) Population policy and family planning.

(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

Sindhuri Mam + IGNOU MA+ Applied Sociology Applied Sociology
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

(a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.

(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.

(c) Violence against women.

(d) Caste conflicts.

(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.

(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.

Sindhuri Mam + IGNOU MA+ Applied Sociology Can Refer Ram Ahuja, Articles of EPW here

Coaching

If you can join coaching it is good since subject is technical and needs some help. If you cannot join, there are no issues with some initial efforts you will start getting info on the things.

Answer Writing

  1. Learn the syllabus, topics and sub-topics .It helps a lot in making linkages.
  2. Once you complete a chapter, please do write answers to some last year questions and get them evaluated.
  3. Once you complete the syllabus, then do join a test series.
  4. In sociology first and foremost thing is knowledge and without it nothing will happen. Second is using knowledge in context of question and third is structuring your answer properly (Introduction – Critical Analysis – Conclusion) if the question demands.
  5. Do not mind linking paper 1 with contemporary examples. This will help in enriching answers
  6. In Paper -2 try to link theory and examples in your answers. Also you can use paper -1 thinkers.
  7. For GS type questions like MNREGA, you need to relate it to topics of the syllabus. MNREGA is linked with rural transformation, poverty, women upliftment, migration, social change/development, environmental change, rural development, rural labour etc. You can easily frame your answers once you know how it links to the syllabus. Try to write some social reports/analysis on MNREGA or some perspective if you can give. ( eg- Role of state in social development , Policy as a tool of social change etc.)
  8. The only way to improve answer writing is to have required knowledge and then its presentation. This will happen when you are well versed with complete syllabus. Do self evaluation and evaluation by teachers/friends. This helps in knowing where you are missing and accordingly you can improve.
  9. Writing style is pivotal in getting good scores by writing nice answers. For sociology, the key is to keep the language simple and bountiful. Which means you should use extensively views of thinkers, case studies, book’s names etc. Unlike a subject like Pub Ad, where you can express your views liberally, in sociology you should use the views and opinions of thinkers and sociologists. This, makes the answers credible and scoring. You should not add case studies for the sake of adding unless they are relevant to the answer.

We will see in the following examples what mistakes are generally done by candidates in the use of case studies.

Example (1): Explain the traditional power structure in rural India. Discuss the factors that have contributed to its changing pattern in recent years.

General Answer: The abolition of privileges and economic rights of the intermediaries like the Zamindars and feudal has though not succeeded in introducing an egalitarian class-structure in villages, yet it has made a great social psychological impact on ex-tenant groups and motivates them now for competition with traditional power groups for access to positions of power and social status. Village leadership has now increasingly become more conciliatory and pragmatic in orientation. With the traditional bases of power for the older village elite having been removed, the leadership, which is now emerging, has to reconcile with factions and opposite interest groups to stay in power.

In order to be effective, leaders now have to be pragmatic; exercise contract through informal relations and integrate bureaucratic innovations.

Comment: A very impressive introduction but still there is no mention of decentralistion process and empowerment of women. This addition will make it highly impressive.

  • Now candidates give plenty of studies to prove it.

Orenstein reports that informal leaders are more effective in the village he studied (a village in Bombay) than formal leaders.

Alan Beals found the village leadership in Namhalli (Mysore) faction-ridden and villagers prone to rely on a leader who had the capacity of successful action. Factional basis leadership also seems to be the case in the village of Morsalli in Banglore district studied by William Mc Cormack.

R. Bachenheimer finds in the Andhra village Padu, that leadership is in the hand of economically dominant families within each caste and wealth plus high caste status determine leadership.

Edward and L.G. harper find the continuity of traditional form of leadership in village Totagadde in Karnataka.

According to Oscar Lewis traditional dominant Jats hold leadership in Rampur village in North India. He observes four characteristics of Jat leadership:

  • (a) the tendency to minimize the status difference between the leader and the led within the caste,
  • (b) resistance to delegate the authority to leaders permanently without consultation with the appropriate faction,
  • (c) Complete absence of youth leadership,
  • (d) Lack of direct note of women in leadership.

This pattern may not be typical of all northern villages.

According to a survey conducted by Planning Commission, the structure of rural leadership seems still dominated by rich and upper caste groups but there is a tendency towards recruitment of younger members to the leadership role in villages and a majority of leaders are literate.

Change in economic field also led to a change in leadership. It was proved by F.G. Bailey in his study of Bisipara village. Bailey found that Boad and Ganjam distillers left their traditional work and village and went to the town for better employment. They improved their economic strength and after returning back to their village, showed interest in leadership.

Andre Beteille, in Sripuram village, found that there has been a change in the power structure of village without the traditional land-owning groups having lost their land to any substantial extent. He observes that today political power, whether in the village or outside it, is not as closely tied to ownership of land as it was in past. New bases of power have emerged which are, to some extent, independent of both caste and class. Perhaps most important among these is the strength of numerical power.

The findings of Beteille shows an instance of regional variation. In this context, an evaluation of twelve villages of India from different regions by B.S. Cohn is very conclusive. In six villages land control also compensates for lack of numerical dominance.

Conclusion: Generally speaking, there has been a break in the centripetal world view of castes and classes in most villages in India. A great level of change has come as a result of politicization of villages through the contemporary political reforms. It has also been motivated by community development schemes which now cover almost all the villages in India.

Comment: Case studies have been very beautifully presented and simultaneously there is no proper analysis. The complete answer is full of studies but is not looking focused, because the facts have not been analysed appropriately. Sometimes it seems as if some contradictory statements have been given. So, do tell and discuss the right causes responsible for the faction (if you are so talking about) in villages and also how they are supporting to change the power-structure.

Improvement

  1. Give greater emphasis on 73rd Amendment Act.
  2. Discuss the reservations given to SC/ST, women and backward class.
  3. How did it bring changes in power-structure, corroborate with a few studies(one or two)
  4. Discuss different programmes for the upliftment of poor sections and women empowerment/emphasis on female participation in politics/impact of women’s Reservation Bill.
  5. After giving all studies in a paragraph, discuss mainly about empowerment, democratic decentralization, mass participation in administration, awareness among people, etc.
  6. More than a decade have gone after the implementation of Panchayati Raj, we have enormous studies on it, place a few of them rightly.
  7. Give the views of Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen.
  8. Give the opinion of World Bank in the very age of Globalisation in this context.

Generally candidates do not mention about Panchayati Raj because they think there is no substantial impact of it on masses.

Your View point: Do tell that the level of changes is not upto the mark, why? Corroborate it by studies, but keep telling that the change is taking place-though dimensions are varying, like, there is caste-based faction, Dalit consciousness has increased –Reason? The influence of Dalit leaders at rural level (Politicisation of power in the name of Dalit Class) etc.

  • After such analysis, give a powerful conclusion.

Example (2): Joint family is dissociating into nuclear family. Analyse the statement.

General Answer: Definition of joint family- Its characteristics/Definition of nuclear family-its characteristics/Nuclear Families in two different sovietise (In western countries and in India’s poor Dalit class)-externally both look alike but internally they are quite different. Nuclear family has been defined on the basis of western country’s structure and so that is the real nuclear family. In western countries, nuclear family is a part of their system while that of in India is due to economic crunch situation.

Now, in India, it is no more limited upto lower caste poor people but has been institutionalized universally. Many sociologists have analysed it and0 have admitted not only its disintegration but also attempted to give the factors responsible for this disintegration. In this regard, they told one more important thing that in western countries that separation was both physical and mental while in India it was only physical. People in India are always mentally joint. This is the finding of I.P Desai which was later on approved by K.M. Kapadia.

Comment: Introduction of the answer is excellent but there is one thing lacking here. The analysis of physical and mental separation should be socio-psychological ie, there should be stress on socialization process. Discuss briefly the socialization-pattern of both the countries and its impact on the child being socialized as to why at one place he becomes emotionless while at the other place he is emotionally attached to his family members.

Now candidates describe so many case studies like the analysis and conclusion of I.P Desai/ the analysis and conclusion of K.M. Kapadia / the opinion poll conducted by Indian Institute of Public opinion – conclusion/ study of Delhi’s Agrawal families by M.S. Gore – Conclusion/ the study, analysis and conclusion of P.M. Kolenda, apart from it, three main causes for integration – divorce and remarriage, payment of bride wealth and dowry and uxori laterality vs. virilaterality study and analysis of Banglore by Aileen Ross, etc.

Then candidates write the conclusion that the outcome of all these studies is that the joint family is disintegrating into nuclear family. Though the direction of change is unlike western countries but still the smaller form of family is universal phenomena.

Improvement

  1. The aim of most of the sociologists is to find the percentage of jointness and nuclearity in the concerned society. Their studies and conclusions are mostly alike. So try to give them in one or two paragraphs.
  2. Among all these studies, the study of Ross is very important. Because she has focused on those issues which are useful for even today’s families and in which the issue of children’s freedom is most important.
  3. Discuss the impact of different Acts or laws related to family or marriage ie, the impact in thinking process, behaviour, freedom of children and also its negative impact.
  4. Impact of Globalisation, Privatisation and liberalization on society, also the impact of Panchayati Raj, etc.
  5. The impact of communication system and media on society and so on family system – Awareness level of people has tremendously raised, it paved the way to understand and analyse the world and in this way a complete change in their world-view.
  6. Empowerment emancipated women – their decision making capacity increased – they can no more carry the traditional Purdah system – consequences of all these – in the form of a big generation-gap and that leads to change in family-system.
  7. Lastly give an emphatic conclusion.

Any topic which is to be studied, should not be studied straight-forword but rather should be broken in different possible dimensions having any kind of connection with the topic in answer writing, select related dimensions according to the nature of the question. This technique will help you complete your answer. An illustration of this technique is given as follows:

Kark Marx : Theory of class-struggle

1. Introduction
2. Definition of class
3. Different classes in different ages : Role of mode of production
  • (a) Meaning of MOP – Its two aspects : (i) Material (Forces of Production) (ii) Social (Relations of Production)
  • (b) Concept of substructure (Economic structure) and infrastructure/superstructure.
  • (c) Changing form of MOP – A special characteristic.
  • (d) Change in MOP – Beginning of a new age (Primitive communism-Ancient-feudal – Capitalistic)
  • (e) In capitalism : ‘Class-in-itself’ changes into ‘class-for-itself’ : full consciousness
  • (f) Emergence of communism – A new MOP where change stops.
4. Beginning and development of capitalism-two different classes.
  • (i) Bourgeoisie
  • (ii) Proletariat
5. Forced labourers : Sale-purchase of their labour power
6. Emergence of false-consciousness in Proletariat - Role of Religion
7. Surplus value & Profit - Maximisation
8.
  • (a) Automation and Problem of unemployment among workers.
  • (b) Overproduction and end of Petty Bourgeoisie.
9. Alienation in Proletariat
  • (a) Meaning of Alienation
  • (b)Meaning – elaboration
    • (i) Economic aspect
    • (ii) Social aspect
  • (c) Dominance of Specializaion – Alienation at its zenith.
  • (d) Religious explanation of Alienation
  • (e) Relevancy of Alienation
  • (f) Criticism
10. Polarisation of two classes - Due to some processes like Homogenisation, Pauperization, Monopolisation.
11. Change of 'class-in-itself' into 'class-for-itself'
  • (a) Meaning of ‘class-in-itself’
  • (b) ‘Class-in-itself’ : Objective Reality
  • (c) Position of labourers -from slaves of Ancient age till alienated Proletariat of capitalistic age – ‘class-in-itself’
  • (d) ‘Class-for-itself’ : Subjective perception
  • (e) Polarisation of two classes and role of Petty Bourgeoisie responsible for change of class-in-itself into class-for-itself – A situation of full consciousness of Proletariat
12. Historical Revolution
13. Establishment of Communism
14. Criticism:
  • (a) Functionalist:
    • (i) Parsons
    • (ii) Davis & Moore
    • (iii) M.M. Tumin
    • (iv) Eva Rosenfeld
    • (v) Michael Young
  • (b) Conflict theorists:
    • (i) Max Weber
    • (ii) Ralf Dahrendorf
15 Relevancy of Marx's theory

Believe in only one thing – revision. In this exam the problem is that we read a lot but we don’t assimilate it or recollect it properly during exam times and write a layman kind of answer. You need to show that you know more and this can only happen by making concise notes and repeated revision of the notes. Also you need to grasp relevant things from newspapers and magazines. Having a look at previous year question papers helps in getting an idea about the kind of questions that one can expect in this exam. Considering previous year question papers is an important part of one’s preparation.